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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The six kingdoms are
-Archaebacteria
-Eubacteria
-Protista
-Fungi
-Plantae
-Animalia
Example of Archaebacteria
-thermophile
Example of Eubacteria
-E.Coli
Example of Protista
-Amoeba
Example of Fungi
-Mushroom
Example of Plantae
-Plant
Example of Animalia
-Dog
What are the levels of organization?
-Cells
-Tissue
-Organ
-Organ System
-Organism
-Population
-Community
-Ecosystem
-Biosphere
What are the five characteristics of life?
-Highly organized
-Obtain and use energy
-Grow and develop
-Reproduce
-Respond to Environment
-ase means
-ose means
-ase means enzyme
-ose means sugar
What elements must be found in organic compounds?
Carbon and Hydrogen
Covalent Bonding shares..
Covalent bonding shares electrions to stablize atoms. STRONGEST!
Ionic Bonds
one atom is electron deficient while other has too many
Hydrogen Bonding
polar molecules are attracted to each other. WEAKEST!
PH SCALE
-Ranges from..
-Acidic is..
-Basic is..
-Neutral is..
-Ranges from 0 to 14
-Acidic is 0 tp 6
-Basic is 8 to 14
-Neutral is 7
Simple Carbohydrates
-small, simple sugars
-easiest to break down
Complex Carbohydrates
Longer term energy source
What must you have in order to make a carbohydrate? Ratio?
Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Ratio of 1:2:1
Plants store carbs in the form of..
plant starch
Animals store carbs in the muscle and liver the form of
glycogen
Monosaccaharide is a _____sugar.
Example:_____
Monosaccaharide is a single sugar. Examples would be glucose and fructose.
Disaccharide is a _____sugar.
Example:_____
Disaccharide is a double sugar. Examples would be sucrose [gluctose and fructose].
Polysaccahride is found in..
the cell wall of plants
[cellulose]
The building block of proteins is
amino acids
DNA and RNA Functions are
DNA - control cell activities
RNA - makes proteins
Saturated Lipids [Fats]
-Solid at room temp
-From Animals
Unsaturated Lipids [Fats]
-Double bonds are liquid at room temp
-From plants
Predation
One benefits, other is dead
-Lion kills a giraffe
Commensalism
One benefits, other isn't affected
-small marine animals attaching themeselves to a whale's skin
Mutualism
both benefits
-Bees pollinating flowers
Parasitism
one organism benefits, other is affected
-fleas biting a dog
Enzymes
speed up chemical reactions that take place in cells
Substrates
Reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
Polar molecules
the centers of positive and negative charge distribution don't converge
WATER IS A POLAR MOLECULE
Atom number=
Protons and Electrons
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Lipid components are assembled
[Eukaryote]
Golgi Complex
Process Proteins [Most eukaryotic]
Nucleus
control center [eukaryote]
Nucleolus
carry out the production and maturation of ribosome [most plants and animals]
Ribosome
makes proteins [eukaryote]
Lysosomes
digest waste [animal]
Vacuoles
stores food, water, and waste [all plants, some animals]
Chloroplast
Photosynthesis
Mitochondria
gives cell energy [eukaryote]
Cilia
used for movement [animals and some protista]
-EXAMPLE: PARAMECIUM
Flagella
Used for movement.
EXAMPLE: EUGLENA
Cell membrane provides..
Regulates..
-Provides protection and suopport.
-Regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Cell membrane is..
a lipid bilayer
Cell membrane has two definites parts. They are..
Phosphate head [Polar, Hydrophilic] and lipid tail [non polar. hydrophobic]
Three major proteins in the cell membrane are..
-Channel protein:transport channels
-Marker protein: Act as recognition sites
-Receptor proteins: communication between cells
Diffusion
Particles moving from more concentrated to less
-NO ENERGY
Osmosis
diffusion [more to less] through selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic
equal
plant cells turn flaccid [limp]
Hypertonic
higher
plant cells plasmolyze [shrivel]. animal cells crenate [shrivel]
Hypotonix
lower
plant cells go turgid [firm] animal cells lyse [explode]
Water Always Moves..
LEFT
Facilitated Transport/Diffusion
Movement of specific molecules across cell membrane through protein channels
-NO ENERGY!
Active Transport
Cells move in opposite direction
-REQUIRES ENERGYYY
Endocytosis
take in materials using infoldings
Exocytosis
release material
Purpose of cellular respiration
produce energy rich ATP molecules
Pyrimidines
Cytosine and Thymine
Purine
Adenenine and Guanine
Nucleotides have 3 parts. They are..
-Deoxyribose molecule [sugar]
-Phosphate group
-Nitrogenous base [ATGC]
Down syndrome
Trisomy 21
Klinefelter's syndrome
MALE
extra sex chromosme XXY
Turner's syndrome
X chromosome is missing or incomplete
Cell membrane components
-Fungi
-Bacteria
-Plants
-Fungi:Chitin
-Bacteria:Peptidoglycan
-Plants:Cellulose
Final acceptor in Cellular respiration
OXYGEN