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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
niche
exact habitat of an individual
biosphere
entire area on earth which organisms live
ecosystem
all organisms and nonliving things in an area
community
populations that live in the same area
population
individuals of a species living in the same area
population ecology
limited resources (competition); succession; predator/prey
abiotic factors
nonliving parts of an ecosystem (sunlight, water)
biotic factors
living parts of an exosystem
ecological succession
changes in an ecosystem from unstable to stable
primary succession
succession taking place in an ecosystem with no living organisms inhabiting it
secondary succession
succession taking place in an ecosystem with surviving organisms inhabiting it
climax community
a stable and diverse community
tundra
permafrost, long/cold winters, short growing season, coniferous trees + self-insulated animals, low nutrient/mositure soil
taige/coniferous forest
cold/long winters, moister soil than tundra, coniferous trees + self insulated animals
temperature deciduous forest
cold winters/warm summers, moderate precipitation, deciduous trees + mosses + hibernating/migrating animals
grassland
cold winters/hot summers, grasses, animals that can adjust to temperal changes
tropical rainforests
hot+moist, high precipitation, soil low in nutriets, trees/climbing plants + animals that live in/on trees
deserts
hot days/cold nights, very low precipitation, soil low in nutriets, plants that can survive with low moisture/nutrients + animals that can find shade/live off low water supply
food webs
arrows go in direction of energy being passed (up)
producers
can produce own energy (mainly vegetation0
consumers
rely on other organisms for food
primary consumers
eat producers
secondary consumers
eat primary consumers
tertiary consumers
eat secondary consumers
decomposers
decompose waste of organisms for energy
autotrophs
can produce their own energy
heterotrophs
rely on other organisms for energy
herbivores
eat vegetation
carnivores
eat meet (animals)
pyramid of energy
10% rule: only 10% of energy is passed on when consumed
photosynthesis
CO2 +H2O = O2 + C6H12O6 + energy

takes carbon and water and produces energy (with by products oxygen and glucose)

related to cellular respiration because byproducts are ingredients
cellular respiration
O2 + C6H12O6 =CO2+ H2O + energy

takes oxygen and glucose to produce energy (with byproducts carbon and water)

related to photosynthesis because byproducts are ingredients
water cycle
evaporates, condenses, precipitates
O2-CO2 cycle
CO2 created by burning and cellular respiration, then is turned into oxygen by photosynthesis, oxygen taken in by organisms and cellular respiration occurs
Nitrogen cycle
nitrogen taken in by nitrogen fixing bacteria, then turned into ammonium, ammonium then undergoes nitrification and turns into nitrites, then turned into nitrates by nitrifying bacteria or assimilation makes plants take in the nitrates. The plants are then eaten along with the nitrates by animals or are decomposed. The decomposers turn the nitrates into ammonium, beginning the proccess again.
coevolution
two or more organisms evolving simultaneously
mutualism
both organisms equally benefit (legumes/bacteria)
parasitism
one organism benefits, the other is harmed (ticks/humans)
commensalism
one organism benefits, the other is unaffected (ray/remona)
nonnative/invasive species
no natural predators, eat food of other organisms
biodiversity
variations in habitats, species and genetics; important because all are interdependent
similarities in embryos
changes in embryos, most closely related embryo movement=most closely related in evolution
homologous structures
similar structures with different purposes in dfferent species; shows that they eveolved froma common ancestor
vestigal structures
structures with no currect purpose
similarities in biochemistry
similarities in proteins shows relation
Lamarck
"Use and Disuse" causes growth/shrinking of a structure, this is then passed down
proved wrong by Weisman's mouse experiment
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
overproducing of offspring, differential survival rate, genetic variation, and struggle to survive survival of the fittest
Kettlewell's peppered moth
originally the allele frequency of the white moths was higher because they bleneded in with the trees and were not as suseptible to predators, but during industrial revolution the trees became black with soot and black allele frequency increased
speciation
divided by a geographical barrier and become new species when they can no longer reproduce (reproductive barriers formed)
geographic isolation
physical barriers established; natural selection occurs; differences between population increase; can no longer reproduce and reproductive barriers are formed
prezygotic reproductive barriers
behavioral isolation; mechanical isolation; temporal isolation; habitat isolation
postzygotic reproductive barriers
embryo death; hybrid sterility; sometimes hybrid survives but cannot reproduce
genetic drift
changes in a gene pool of a small population based on chance
mass extinction
most of community dies, the remaining community is not representive of the whole
gradualism
steady changes over time
punctuated equilibrum
a time of no change followed by time of many quick changes and againa time of no change
divergent evolution
single ancestor changes and creates different species
convergent evolution
two different species evolve to resemble each other (wing of bird and wing of insect)
Meiosis I
before prophase chromosomes replicate themselves; PROPHASE I: centriole pairs move toopposite poles; synapsis occurs (homologous pairs line up, tetrads form); crossing over; METAPHASE I: homologous pairs line up down equator; spindle fibers attach; ANAPHASE I (disjunction): homologous pairs separate and go to opposite poles; TELOPHASE I: nucleur membrane forms around haploid number of chromosomes; cytokinesis (divide into two cells; cleavage furrow); daughter cells formed
Meiosis II
PROPHASE II: nuclear membrane disintegrates; METAPHASE II: chromosomes migrate to equator of daughter cells; ANAPHASE II (disjunction): sister chromatids separate and migrate to opposite poles; TELOPHASE II: nuclear membrane forms around haploid cells; cleavage furrow forms; 4 haploid cells created
gametes
sex cells with the haploid number of chromosomes
diploid
the number of chromosomes found in body cells; the full number of chromsomes
haploid
the number of chromosomes found in gametes; half the diploid number of cells
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes holding the gene for the same trait in the same locus, same size
crossing over
part of one homologous chromosome changes with the other chrosome, leads to biodiversity
body cells
diploid
sex cells
haploid; gametes
autosomes
normal chromosomes
sex chromosomes
one pair of sex chromosomes in all body cells, determines sex of individual
Gregor Mendel
scentist that discovered allele frequencies and Mendelian genetics
homozygous
pure (aa)
heterozygous
hybrid (Aa)
genes
the thing that determines a trait
allele
a specific type of gene that determines the outcome of the trait
genotype
the genetic makeup of the trait of an individual
phenotype
the appearance of an individual's trait
incomplete dominance
when both alleles mix to come up with an in between trait
codominance
both alleles show through
polygenic
many genes for one trait, makes a range for that trait (skin color, hair color, height)
pedigrees
circle = female, square = male
nondisjunction disorders
trisomy = one too many, monosomy = one too few
hardy-weinberg equilibrium
large population; random mating; no migration into/out of population, no natural selection, no net mutations
hardy weinberg problems
p = allele frequency of dominant allele (square root of AA)
p2 = frequency of homozygous dominant (AA)
q = allele frequency of reccesive (square root of aa)
q2 = frequency of homozygous reccesive (aa)
2pq = frequency of heterozygous
microevolution
natural selection
genetic drift
gene flow (migration)
nonrandom mating (assortive > choose traits of mate; inbreeding > choose mates near)
structure of DNA
double helix
nucleotide
-5 carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
-phosphate group
-nitrogenous base (purine: adenine/guanine; pyrimidine: cytosine/thymine)
phosphodiester bonds
covalent bonds between strands
Structure of RNA
single stranded
nucleotide
-ribose
-phophate group
-nitrogenous base (purine: adenine/guanine; pyrimidine: cytosine/uracil)
phosphodiester bonds
Griffith's experiment
transformed nonpathogenic cells into pathogenic cells
Hershey and Chase's experiment
concluded that DNA is the genetic material not protein by electrically tagging one or the other
DNA replication
hydrogen bonds broken
strands separate
old strand is template
DNA polymerase reads sequence
2 identical DNA double-helixes formed
Transcription
DNA to RNA (occurs in nucleus)
DNA unwinds at site of gene
RNA polymerase reads sequence and creates RNA strand
when RNA polymerase reaches end of gene, disconnects and DNA recoils
mRNA then leaves nucleus to ribosome
Translation
RNA to protein (occurs at ribosome)
tRNA carries amino acids to mRNA according to sequences on mRNA
elogation - adding on off amino acids
peptide bonds formed between amino acids
ends when reaches stop codon
codon
3 base sequences on mRNA
anticodon
3 corresponding base sequences on tRNA for mRNA
protein function
Protection
Contratction
Hormones
Enzymes
Structure
Transport
Energy source
Regulation
Storage
structure of protein
amino group, side chain, carboxyl group, hydrogen bond, carbon center
Denaturation
enzyme looses 3D shape and function
Substrates
molecules that enzymes act on
active site
place substrate binds to enzyme
point mutation
silent - no effect
missense - changes meaning of sequence
nonsense - causes a premature stop codon
frame shift mutation
a deletion or inseration of an entire nucleotide
Translation
RNA to protein (occurs at ribosome)
tRNA carries amino acids to mRNA according to sequences on mRNA
elogation - adding on off amino acids
peptide bonds formed between amino acids
ends when reaches stop codon
codon
3 base sequences on mRNA
anticodon
3 corresponding base sequences on tRNA for mRNA
protein function
Protection
Contratction
Hormones
Enzymes
Structure
Transport
Energy source
Regulation
Storage
structure of protein
amino group, side chain, carboxyl group, hydrogen bond, carbon center
Denaturation
enzyme looses 3D shape and function
Substrates
molecules that enzymes act on
active site
place substrate binds to enzyme
point mutation
silent - no effect
missense - changes meaning of sequence
nonsense - causes a premature stop codon
frame shift mutation
a deletion or inseration of an entire nucleotide