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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Carbon and the molecular diversity of life
unique capacity for forming multiple bonds and chains at low energies makes life as we know it possible.
most of the compounds known to science are carbon compounds
Can Carbon atoms share electrons?
Yes, notable being other carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms, and oxygen atoms
Hydrocarbons are...
non-polar, hydrophobic compounds
Compounds that have no charges on them will not mix with polar water

Compounds are polar, and so dissolve easily in the polar solvent of water
Saturated Hydrocarbons
A simple chain of carbons with its full complement of hydrogens

known as alkanes
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons with double bonds in them

contain at least one double bond

Phosphate groups
this is an important group found in ATP
Exergonic reactions
Energy releasing processes, ones that "generate" energy
Endergonic reactions
Reactions that require energy to initiate the reaction
Condensation Reaction
Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule, also known as dehydration synthesis.
to break with water. Bonds between monomers are broken by the addition of water molecules, a hydrogen from the water attaching to one monomer and a hydroxyl group attaching digestive tract
-general molecular formula CH20
-The simplest CHO are monosaccharides
-Disaccharides are double sugars
-Polysaccharides are made of many sugars
-Glucose is the most common monosaccharide and is vital to life
-Three common sugars share the same molecular formula: C6H12O6 (hexose since 6 carbons)
- Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Ribose
Most names for sugars end in...?
consists of two monosaccharides joined together by a glycosidic linkage, a covalent bond formed during dehydration reactions
Common Polysaccharide of plants
Consisting of glucose molecules
Stored mainly in liver and muscle, hydrolysis of glycogen releases glucose
Storage of starch in plants
Plants store starch as granules within cellular structures called plastids inside the chloroplasts
Cellulose is it helpful to humans?
Not a nutrient for humans
But it remains as an important fiber.
Fat molecules are made up of four parts:
a molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids
Structure of fatty acid
a long carbon chain, at one end is a carboxyl group. A long hydrocarbon tail is attached.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
some of the carbons share double bonds, they're not bonded to as many hydrogens as they could if they weren't double.