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25 Cards in this Set

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7 Characteristics of Living Things
Order, Regulation, Growth and Development, Energy Utilization, Response to Enviroment, Reproduction, Evolution
Order
all living things exhibit complex organizations
ex. stucture of sun flower
Regulation
Environment outside an organism may change markedly, but mechanisms regulate an organism's internal enviroment, maintaining it w/in limits that sustain life. (ex.) regulation of amt. of blood flowing through blood vessels in lrg. ears of a jackrabbit, helps maintain bdy temp. by adjusting heat xchange w/ air.
Growth and Development
Inherited info. carried by genes controls an organsims pattern of growth and development.
Energy Utilization
Organisms take in evergy and transform it to perform all of life's activities.
Response to Environment
All organisms respond to environmental stimuli. (ex.) The venus
flytrap closes its trap rapidly in response to the environmental stimulus that a cricket landed on it.
Reproduction
Organsisms reproduce their own kind. (ex.) Panda with its baby.
Evolution
Reproduction underlies the capacity of species to change (evolve) over time.
- has been a central, unifying feature of life since it arose about 4 bil yrs ago.
Classification of Organisms
1/Domains (bacteria, archea,eukarya) 2/Kingdoms( fungi, plantae, animolia,
protista[bacteria],monera)3/Phylum 4/ Class 5/Order 6/Family 7/Genus 8/Species
Prokaryotes
-unicelluar
-microscopic
-most widespread of living organisms
-ex. baceria and archea
Eukaryotes
-has a nucleus
-organelles
-ex. protists (algae)
-make their own food
The Scientifc Method
1/Obeservation
2/Question
3/Form a hypothesis
4/Prediction
5/Experimentation
6/Test Hypothesis
Scientific Theories
General explanation of important natural phenomenon developed through extensive and reproducible observation.
Ionic Bond
-Two ions with opposite charges attract each other.
-donates and gains electrons
-ex. Salt ( Na+, Cl- ~> NaCl)
Colvaent Bond
-share one or more pairs of electrons.
-H2 + O2 = H2O
Hydrogen Bonds
-always a hydrogen atom
Acids
-any substance that yields hydrogen ions when put in a solution.
-ex. coffee, vinger, urine
Bases
-any substance accepts hydrogen ions when put into solution
-ex. NaOH, ammonia, oven cleaners, baking soda
Water
-EXCELLENT SOLVENT
-interacts w/ many molecules
-three forms: solid, liquid and gas
Carbohydrates
-sugars = glucose
- simple monosaccharides= energy source 4 cells.
-simple disaccharides= sucrose
-complex polysaccharides= startch, glycotgen, cellulose, chitin
Lipids
-Hygen=fats energy storage cholersterol
-fattly acids + glycerol
-ex oils, fats, wax, steroids
-first class fats,oils, waxes
second class
-phospholipids cell membrane have polar head that
hydrophilic (water loving)
-2 class nonpolar tails that are hydrophobic (water rearing)
-third class steroids consis of carbon rings ex cholersterol hormones anabolic steroids
Proteins
-Amino acids
1/Structural
2/Functional
-Linked by peptide bonds
nucleic acids
-nucleotides
- DNA > genetic materials
>double helix
-RNA > protein synthesis
DNA
-4 nucleotides
1/PSA -adenines
2/PST- thymine
3/PSG- Guanine
4/PSC Cytosine
RNA
-role in making proteins
-1 PSA Adnenine
2 PSU urcacil
3 PSG guanine
4 PSC cytosine