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24 Cards in this Set

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What is the code in our bodies that tells each cell what to do and how to do it?
A genetic code
What is the molecule that carries the genetic code?
DNA
What is DNA made of?
Nucleotides
Nucleotides are made of what three things?
~A 5-carbon sugar (deoxyribose)
~Phosphate
~Nitrogeneous base
What four scientists who discovered the structure of DNA?
~Rosalind Franklin
~James Watson
~Francis Crick
~Erwin Chargaff
What does the structure of a DNA strand look like?
A double helix (a twisted ladder)
What make up the "sides" of the "ladder" of the DNA double helix?
The deoxyribose and phosphates
What makes the "rungs" of the ladder?
Nitrogeneous Bases
Name the four nitrogeneous bases
Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, and Thymine
What are the Purine Nitrogeneous Bases?
Adenine and Guanine
What are the Pyrimidine Nitrogeneous bases?
Cytosine and Thymine
What is it called when two bases form together to become one "rung" of the ladder?
Base Pairing
What is it called when DNA copies itself?
Replication
What are the four steps of Replication?
1. Enzymes break the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs to "unzip" the two strands

2. Each seperated strand acts as a copy of teh opposite strand

3. Enzymes insert the appropriate bases to link the new sugar-phosphates together

4. Enzymes "proofread" the bases to make sure they are paired correctly
Where is the information for proteins located?
DNA
What acts as a messenger between DNA and rribosomes in the process of protein synthesis?
RNA
What are the differences between the STRUCTURE of DNA and RNA?
1. The sugar in RNA is ribose (not deoxyribose)

2. RNA is single-stranded (only one sided ladder)

3. RNA has the base Uracil instead of Thymine
What are the three types of RNA?
~Messenger RNA (mRNA)
~Transfer RNA (tRNA)
~Ribosomal RNA
What is transcription?
Transcription: Process by which a molecule of DNA is copied, in a complementary strand of RNA (called mRNA)
What is Translation?
The decoding of mRNA message into a polypeptide chain (protein)
Where does transcription take place?
Nucleus
Where does translation take place?
Cytoplasm (in ribosomes)
What does transfer RNA do?
It carries amino acids to the ribosomes where amino acids are joined together to form polypeptides.
What is an anticodon?
The three tRNA nucleotides that are complementary to three nucleotides on the mRNA.