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62 Cards in this Set

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The circulatory path of the blood
Beginning with the left ventricle, blood is pumped, through the aorta. From the aorta --> smaller arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries --> venules --> veins --> superior and inferior vena cava --> right atrium --> right ventricle --> pulmonary arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries of lungs --> venules --> veins --> pulmonary veins --> left atrium --> left ventricle
Systole
Occurs when ventricles contract
Diastole
Occurs during relaxation of entire heart, and then contraction of the atria.
Sinoatrial Node (SA Node)
-The heart contracts automatically, paced by a group of specialized cardiac cells called SA nodes, located in the right atrium.
-The SA Node is autorhythmic, spreading its contractions to the surrounding cardiac muscles via electrical synapses made from gap junctions.
Vagus Nerve
-Parasympathetic vagus nerve innervates the SA node, slowing contractions.
Atrioventricular Node (AV Node)
-The action potential generated by the SA node spreads around both atria causing them to contract, and, at the same time, spreads to the AV node, located in the interatrial septa. It is slower to contract.
Bundle of His
-From the AV node, the action potential moves down these conductive fibers. Located in the wall separating the ventricles.
Purkinje Fibers
-The action potential branches out through the ventricular walls via these conductive fibers. They allow for a more unified, stronger connection.
Arteries
-Wrapped in smooth muscle that is innervated by sympathetic nervous system (epinephrine = powerful vasoconstrictor)
Arterioles
-Wrapped in smooth muscle. Constriction and dilation of arterioles can be used to regulate blood pressure as well as rerouting blood.
Capillaries
-Nutrient and gas exchange with any tissue other than vascular tissue takes place across these walls. There are four methods for capillary movement: 1) pinocytosis 2) diffusion or transport through capillary cell membranes 3) movement through pores in the cells called fenestrations 4) movement through the space between cells
As blood flows into a capillary:
hydrostatic pressure is greater than osmotic pressure, and net fluid flow is out of capillary, and into the interstitium.
Venules and Veins
-Lumen larger than ones on arteries, contain more volume of blood
T or F: The cross-sectional area of capillaries is far less than the are of arteries or veins
F: much greater
Relationship between blood velocity w/ cross-sectional area
blood velocity is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area
Blood pressure ___________ near the heart and __________ to the _________ near the capillaries
increases, decreases, lowest
Inspiration
Occurs when the medulla oblongata of the midbrain signals the diaphragm to contract.
Diaphragm
Skeletal muscle, and innervated by the phrenic nerve. When relaxed, it is dome-shaped, flattens upon contraction (creating negative gauge pressure)
Nasal Cavity
Filters, moistens, and warms incoming air. Also, coarse hair at the front traps large dust particles. Mucus secreted by goblet cells traps smaller dust particles and moistens the air, and cilia moves mucus and dust back toward pharynx, so it can be removed by spitting/swallowing.
Pharynx
(Throat) - Functions as a passageway for food and air.
Larynx
(Voice Box) - Sits behind the epiglottis, contains vocal cords. Also, when nongaseous materials enter the larynx, a coughing reflex is triggered.
Trachea
(Wind Pipe) - Lies in front of esophagus, composed of ringed cartilage covered by ciliated mucous cells. Splits into right and left bronchi before entering lungs.
Alveoli
From each alveolus, oxygen diffuses into a capillary where it is picked up by RBC's. These release CO2, which diffuses into the alveolus, and is expelled upon exhalation.
What might result from a problem in microtubule production?
A problem in breathing (or fertility or circulation of cerebrospinal fluid)
As O2 pressure increases, the O2 saturation of hemoglobin:
increases sigmoidally
What does the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin depend upon?
CO2 pressure, pH, and temp of blood.
The oxygen dissociation curve is shifted to the right by what?
An increase in CO2 pressure, hydrogen ion conc, or temperature (indicates a lowering of hgb's affinity for oxygen).
What does carbon monoxide do?
Has more than 200 times affinity for hgb than does oxygen but shifts the oxygen dissociation curve to the LEFT.
Carbon dioxide is carried by the blood in three forms:
1) in physical solution
2) as bicarbonate ion (the most)
3) in carbamino compounds (combined with hgb + other proteins)
Carbonic Anhydrase
-The bicarbonate ion formation is governed by this enzyme in the reversible reaction:


When CO2 is absorbed in in the lungs, bicarbonate ion diffuses into the cell. To balance, Cl moves out of cell (chloride shift).
The greater the pressure of CO2, the greater the:
blood content of CO2
When hgb becomes saturated w/ oxygen, its capacity to hold CO2 is ________.
reduced (Haldane effect)
Acidosis (too much acid in blood)
The body compensates for this by increasing the breathing rate thereby expelling CO2 and raising the pH of the blood.
The Rate of Breathing
-Affected by the central chemoreceptors located in the medulla, and peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid arteries and aorta (central and peripheral chemoreceptors monitor CO2 conc in blood and increase breathing when levels get too high).
The Bends (decompression sickness)
Caused by, among other things, when divers go too deep, nitrogen diffuses into the blood; when they come back up (if they dont allow enough time) bubbles form, which may block vessels causing decompression sickness.
The Lymphatic System
Collects excess interstitial fluid and returns it to the blood. Proteins and large particles that cannot be taken up by the capillaries, are removed by the lymph system.
T or F: The lymph system recycles the interstitial fluid and monitors the blood for infection
True
T or F: The lymph system reroutes high soluble fat digestates around the small veins of the intestine into the larger capillaries of the neck.
False: The lymph system reroutes LOW soluble fat digestates around the small CAPILLARIES of the intestine into the larger VEINS of the neck.
The lymph system is an _________ system.
OPEN (fluid enters at one end and leaves at the other)
Factors that affect interstitial pressure:
1) blood pressure
2) plasma osmotic pressure
3) interstitial osmotic pressure
4) permeability of capillaries
Lymph Flow
Intermittent valves allow fluid to flow in only one direction, and it is propelled through valves in two ways: 1) smooth muscle in the walls of larger lymph vessels contract when stretched 2) lymph vessels may be squeezed by adjacent skeletal muscles, body movements, etc
Draining of the Lymph System
The lymph system empties into larger veins at the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct. Lymph from the right arm and head enter the blood through the right lymphatic duct. The rest of the body is drained by the thoracic duct.
What kind of tissue is the blood?
Connective Tissue
When a blood sample is placed in a centrifuge, it separates into 3 parts:
1) plasma
2) buffy coat (WBC's)
3) RBC's
Hematocrit
The percentage by volume of RBC's (usually 35-50% and greater in men than women)
Plasma
contains the matrix of the blood, which includes water, ions, urea, ammonia, proteins (albumin, immunoglobulins, clotting factors), and other organic and inorganic compounds
Albumin
Transports fatty acids and steroids, as well as acting to regulate the osmotic pressure of the blood.
Serum
Plasma in which the clotting protein fibrinogen has been removed.
Where are albumin, fibrinogen, and most other plasma proteins formed? What function?
In the liver. They act as a source of amino acids for tissue protein replacement.
Erythrocytes (RBC's)
-No organelles or nucleus, so don't do mitosis
-Transport O2 and CO2
Leukocytes (WBC's)
-No organelles
-Function to protect the body from foreign invaders)
Stem Cells
-Precursor cell that resides in bone marrow, from which all blood cells differentiate from
Granulocytes
-Type of leukocyte that live a short time, cuz multiply quickly against any infection, and then die once it's gone
Agranular Leukocytes
-Type of leukocyte that live a long time, work against specific agents of infection
Platelets
-Small portions of membrane-bound cytoplasm torn from megakaryocytes (from bone marrow)
-No nucleus, have actin and myosin
-Membrane designed to not adhere to healthy endothelium, but adhere to injured endothelium
Coagulation (3 steps)
1) Many coagulation factors form a complex called prothrombin activator 2) This catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin into thrombin 3) Thrombin is an enzyme that governs polymerization of fibrinogen to fibrin threads that attach to platelets to form tight plug.
Which leukocyte is most abundant in blood?
Neutrophils (62%)
Which leukocyte is least abundant in blood?
Basophils (0.4%)
The human body protects itself from infectious microbes and toxins in two ways:
1) Innate immunity
2) Acquired immunity
Innate Immunity
Involves a generalized protection from most intruding organisms and toxins.
Acquired Immunity
Protection against specific organisms or toxins. Develops after the body is FIRST attacked.
Inflammation
-Results from injury to tissue. Blood vessels dilate, capillaries increase permeability, tissue cells swell, and granulocytes and macrophages migrate to inflamed area.
-Walls off effected tissue, impeding spread of infection