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37 Cards in this Set

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Individualistic hypothesis
species are independently distributed along gradients and communities are simple the assemblage of species that occupy the same area because of similar abiotic factors.
Interactive Hypothesis
communities are secrete groupings of particular species that are closely interdependent and nearly always occur together.
Rivet Model
Most of the species in a community are associated tightly with other species in a community.
Redundancy Model
Most of the species in a community are not tightly associated with one another and the web of live is very loose.
Ecological Niche
The some total of a species use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment.
Resource Partitioning
Differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community.
Character Displacement
The tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species.
Batesian Mimicry
a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model.
Mullerian Mimicry
mimicry of two unpalatable species.
Parasitism
A symbiotic interaction in which one organism the parasite derives its nourishment from another organism its host which is harmed in the process. +-
Endoparasites
Parasites that live within their host.
Ectoparasites
Parasites that feed on the external surface of a host.
Mutualism
Interspecific interaction that benefits both species. ++
Commensalism
The interaction between species that benefits only one of them, and the other is left unaffected. +0
Energetic Hypothesis
The length of the food chain is limited by the inefficiency of the energy transfer along the chain.
Dynamic Stability Hypothesis
Long food chains are less stable than short chains. Fluctuation at lower trophic levels are magnified at higher levels, potentially causing the extinction of top predators.
Keystone Species
They exert strong control on community structure not so much by numerical might as by their ecological roles or niches.
Bottom up Model
Nutrients controls the community organizations.
Top down Model
Predation controls community organization.
Abiotic Components
Nonliving chemical and physical factors. Ex. Temp light water and nutrients.
Biotic Components
the organisms that are part of any individuals environment.
Photic Zone
Where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis
Aphotic Zone
Where little light penetrates.
Thermocline
Is the part in a body of water where there is a rapid temperature change.
Benthic Zone
Bottom of aquatic biomes, the substrate
Benthos
The communities of organisms in the benthic zone, and detritus normally takes place here.
Littoral Zone
The shallow well lit water close to shore.
Limnetic Zone
Well lit far from shore occupied by phytoplankton
Profundal Zone
Deep aphotic region
Oligotrophic
Lakes are deep and nutrient poor, and the phytoplankton in the limnetic zone are relatively sparse and not very productive.
Eutrophic
Lakes in contrast are usually shallower and the nutrient content of their water is high.
Mesotrophic
Lakes with moderate amounts of nutrients.
Intertidal Zone
Where land meets water.
Nertic Zone
shallow regions over the continental shelves.
Oceanic Zone
Very great depths.
Pelagic Zone
Open water of any depth.
Abyssal Zone
Organisms that is very deep in the benthic zone.