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19 Cards in this Set

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Why are nucleic acids important?
they contain genetic info
What is DNA
a polymer of nucleic acid
What does DNA consist of?
sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate, & nitrogenous bases
Name the Nitrogenous base pairs
adenine & thynine;
cytosine & guanine
Explain the structure of DNA
Double Helix: 2 strands of nucleic acid polymers
Where are the bases locate in the double helix & how are they bonded?
The bases are located on the inside of the helix. adenine & thynine share 2 H-bonds & cytosine & guanine share 3 H-bonds
What is the function of phosphodiester bonds? Sugar phosphates?
Phosphodiester bonds join monomers together. Sugar phosphates are the backbone of the outside of the molecule
How does RNA differ from DNA
It has ribose sugar, uracil instead of thynine, single stranded
What is a gene?
Sequence of nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) that contains genetic info for a protein or RNA molecules
What i the process for encoding a gene?
DNA -> RNA -> Protein
What is a ribosome?
Catalytic RNA molecule
What is a carbohydrate?
aldehyde or ketone with 2 hydroxyl groups; sugar molecules
What is a monosaccharide?
monomers of carbs; simple sugars that contain 3-7 C atoms
What is a disaccharide?
2 monosaccharides covalently joied by a glycosidic bond
which way do alpha glycosidic bonds point? beta?
alpha - down
beta - up
How do carbs function as fuel?
They can be metabolized to generate cellular energy (ATP)
What are the functions of Carbs?
fuel, structure, cell identity
Why are carbs good fuel molecules?
They contain reduced Carbon atoms that are oxidized during metabolism -> synthesis of ATP
What is oxidation?
the removal of electrons