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242 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
in adult mammals, which one contains stem cells with developmental potential to form the cellular elements
a. bone
b. spleen
c. arteries
d. liver
e. thyroid
a. bone
which applies to humoral response?
a. it involves B cells
b. it involves memory cells
c. it involves helper T cells
d. it invovles macrophages as antigen presenting cells.
e. all of the above
a. it involves B cells?
which one is correct?
a. complement is a protein belonging to the second line of non-specific defense
b. once tagged by an antibody, second line of defense mechanisms can effectively destroy foreign cells in a specfic manner.
c. complement is a protein made by type B lymphocytes
d. a and b
a. complement is a protein belonging to the second line of non-specific defense
in ABO blood groups, which isoagglutinin geenes make surface glycoproteins
a. O only
b. A only
c. A and B
d. B only
e. A, B, and O
c. A and B
whcih is important in self-recognition?
a. IgM
b. Class I MHC
c. Class II MHC
d. all of the above
e. b and c
e. b and c
which type major histocompatibility complex is associated with cytotoxic T cells?
a. class II MHC
b. IgE
c. IgM
d. Class I MHC
d. class I MHC
which is associated with cytotoxic T cell?
a. expresses receptors for class II MHC
b. participate in cell communication by direct contact between cells
c. it expresses CD8 protein
d. all of the above
e. b and c
e. b and c
the complement system destroys an invading cell by -
a. opsonization
b. release of perforin
c. insertion of the membrane attack complex
d. neutralization
c. insertion of the membrane attack complex
which cell is most responsibe for the cytotoxic immune response?
a. T cells
b. plasma cells
c. macrophage
d. helper T cells
a. T cells
the defense provided by lymphocytes constitutes part of the non-specific line of defense.
a. true
b. false
b. false
which menas of antibody-mediated disposal of antigens does not enhance phagocytosis
a. precipitation
b. complement fixation
c. agglutination
d. neutralization
b. complement fixation
lymphocytes are part of the nonspecific immune response
a. true
b. false
b. false
which mechanism is thought to play an important role in determining the enormous variety of B and T cells in the body?
a. a special type of protein synthesis in T lymphocytes
b. a special selection of cytotoxic cells
c. a special type of mechanism to inster receptors in the PM
d. a special type of genetic recombination
d. a special type of genetic recombination
cells that attack any infected cell in the body are ____ which cless that attach a body cell infected with a specific virus are _____.
a. natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes
b. neutrophils, B lymphocytes
c. natural killer cells, helper T lymphocytes
d. helper T lymphocytes, natural killer cells
a. natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes
which type of antibody is important for the release of histamines in response to allergens?
a. IgE
b. IgG
c. IgA
d. IgM
e. IgD
a. IgE
antigen presenting MHC proteins are used to distinguish 'self' from foreign objects.
a. true
b. false
a. true
antimicrobial secretions on the skin include
a. lysozomes
b. chemokines
c. interleukin
d. cytokinins
a. lysozomes
which cellular element is not associated with defense and immunity (white blood cells)?
a. eosinophil
b. neutrophil
c. platelets
d. erythrocytes
e. monocyte
d. erythrocytes
class I MHC are expressed by cells of the immune system.
a. true
b. false
a. true
which applies to cell-mediated immune response
a. mediated by T lymphocytes
b. directly invovles microphages
c. mediated by plasma cells
d. all of the above
a. mediated by T lymphocytes
cytotoxic t lymphocytes destroy infected cells by
a. secreting antibodies
b. calling in macrophages
c. secreting interleukin
d. activating the complement system
e. secreting perforin
e. secreting perforin (makes a large pore in cell membrane causing cell to lyse)
In order to ensure that maturning helper T cells are not activated by class II MHC molecules, it is important athat they are expressed ________.
a. on the interior of the thymus
b. on B cells
c. in bone marrow
d. on all nucleated cells
a. on the interior of the thymus?
helper T lymphocytes function in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity
a. true
b. false
a. true
which two white blood cell types are associated with phagocytosis or invading particles
a. monocytes, neutrophils
b. lymphocytes, neutrophils
c. monocytes, lymphocytes
d. basophils, monocytes
a. monocytes, neutrophils
antibodies can be secreted and can be found on the plasma membrane of lymphocytes as antigen receptors
a. true
b. false
a. true
antibodies are found as monomers, dimers, and pentamers.
a. true
b. false
a. true
class II MHC are expressed by non-immune cells.
a. true
b. false
a. true?
pyrogen is a term used for toxic substances produces by pathogens
a. true
b. false
b. false
HIV targets which molecule?
a. MHC II
b. CD8
c. MHC I
d. interleukin
e. CD4
e. CD4
which chemical signal is not involved in the inflammatory response?
a. prostaglandin
b. histamine
c. interleukin
d. clotting factors
c. interleukin
helper t cells are activated by
a. cytotoxic T cell activation
b. binding of cd4
c. binding of cd8
d. clonal selection of antibodies
e. foreign or tumor antigens on MHC II proteins
e. foreign or tumor antigens on MHC II proteins
IgG is the most abundant circulating secreted antibody.
a. true
b. false
a. true
clonal selection is the activation of one type of B lymphocytes by an antigen.
a. true
b. false
a. true
CD4 is the marker of helper t cell lymphocytes
a. true
b. false
a. true
the cells responsible for the faster response to a second infection of the same antigen are
a. plasma
b. memory
c. cytotoxic
d. effector
e. macrophage
b. memory cells
blood plasma and interstitial fluid have very similair composition
a. true
b. false
a. true
which one is associated with helper t cells
a. expresses receptors for class II MHC
b. participate in cell communication by direct contact between cells
c. expresses receptors for interleukin 1
d. secrete interleukin 2
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
signals initiating inflammation arise from invading organisms, and by cells of the body
a. true
b. false
a. true
during a viral disease such as i naids which of the following cells are significantly reduced in numbers
a. plasma cells
b. a and c
c. helper t cells
d. t cells
d. t cells
the movement of substances in the phloem is termed ______.
translocation
increasing the solute concentration makes the water potential of the solution ______.
increase
for diffusion to occur there must be
a. a membrane
b. a gradient
c. water
d. ATP
e. all of these
b. a gradient
what property of water allows it to move up into the leaves from the soil
a. electrical charge
b. ability to form hydrogen bonds
c. very small size
d. ability to dissolve polar molecules
e. high heat capacity
b. ability to form hydrogen bonds
in a chemical analysis of xylem sap, which of the following substances would likely be present in the least amount
a. water
b. phosphate
c. nitrate
d. sucrose
e. potassium
d. sucrose
the water within xylem vessels moves toward the top of a tree as the result of
a. active transport or ions into the vascular bundle
b. atmospheric pressure on roots
c. evaporation of water through stomata
d. force of root pressure
e. osmosis in the root
c. evaporation of water through stomata
the pressure that develops within a living plant cell as result of water entering the cell is known as
a. transpiration
b. osmosis
c. plasmolysis
d. turgor
e. water potential
e. water potential
arrange the following five events in an order that explains the bulk flow of substances in the phloem
1. water diffuses into the sieve elements
2. leaf cells produce sugar by photosynthesis
3. solutes are actively transported into sieve elements
4. sugar is transported from cell to cell in the leaf
5. sugar moves down the stem
4
1
3
2
5
the nutrient that plays a role in the opening and closing of stomata is _____.
k+
in a photosynthetically active leaf the xylem is under ______ pressure and the ploem is under ______ pressure
a. positive/positive
b. positive/negative
c. negative/negative
d. negative/positive
d. negative/positive
according to the pressure-flow hypothesis, turgor pressure in the sieve elements at the source is greater tahn the turgor pressure at the sink
a. true
b. false
a. true
root pressure is the driving force for
a. movement of sucrose through the plant body
b. evaporation of water from leaves
c. ion movement across the plasma membrane
d. cell expansion in growing shoots
e. guttation of water from leaf tips
e. guttation of water from leaf tips
the transport of water from the roots to the leaves is best explained by the cohesion-tension theory based on hydrogen bonds between water molecules
a. true
b. false
a. true
companion cells provide nutrition for tracheids
a. true
b. false
a. true
the stomatal apparatus in leaves consists of a pore bordered by
a. guard cells
b. hydathodes
c. endodermis
d. bundle sheath cells
a. guard cells
which tissue layer in the leaf contains stomatal pores
a. palisade parenchyma
b. veins
c. spongy panenchyma
d. epidermis
d. epidermis
the pressure that develops against the cell wall as a result of water entering the vacuole of the cell is called
a. osmotic potential
b. plasmolysis
c. pressure potential
d. diffusion
c. pressure potential
the main pressure that causes bulk flow of water and minerals through xylem results from
a. hydrostatic pressure
b. the accumulation of water and minerals by the stele of the root
c. the evaporation of water from the stomata during transpiration
d. the lateral transport of water from the phloem
c. the evaporation of water from the stomata during transpiration
the endodermis prevents water and minerals from entering the stele through the
a. endodermal cells
b. symplast
c. apoplast
d. plasmodesmata
e. xylem vessels
d. plasmodesmata
which of the following structures aid in maintaining plant turgor pressure
a. chloroplast
b. ribosome
c. lysosome
d. cell wall
e. none of the above
d. cell wall
when the stomates are open the internal concentration of K+ is low
a. true
b. false
b. false
stomatal opening and closing is function of the ______.
guard cells
which of the following is not an adaptation seen in xerophytes
a. thick cuticles
b. loss of leaves
c. white leaves
d. sunken stomates
c. white leaves
when transport proteins move molecules against the concentration gradient this is called
a. osmosis
b. simple diffusion
c. passive diffusion
d. protein transport system
e. active transport
e. active transport
water taken into a root from the soil may move through spaces in the cell walls and thus never have to cross a cell membrane except in the
a. epidermis
b. cortex
c. endodermis
d. xylem
e. phloem
c. endodermis
the movement of water upward in xylem vessels is thought to occur as a consequence of
a. cytoplasmic streaming
b. transpiration pull
c. turgor pressure
d. wall pressure
b. transpiration pull
when guard cells swell up and become turgid
a. the stomates open
b. the stomates close
c. transpiration stopes
d. water is lost through the stomate
e. a and d
e. a and d
a negative water potential indicates a _____ in free energy as compared with pure water
decrease
ithe opening of a stomate is thought to involve
a. an increase in the osmotic concentration
b. a decrease in the osmotic concentration
c. active transport of water out of the guard cells
d. decreased turgor pressure
a. an increase in the osmotic concentration
movement of sugar in the phloem can occur both upward and downward in the plant
a. true
b. false
a. true
sugar transport in the phloem of plants does not require energy
a. true
b. false
b. false
what plant hormone has been shown to be involved in the rapid closing of the stomata
a. auxin
b. cytokini
c. ethylene
d. absicisic acid
e. gibberellin
d. abscisic acid
negative pressure in the xylem aids in the tension cohesion mechanism for the ascent of water through xylem
a. true
b. false
b. false
which of the following is not a function of active transport across plant membranes
a. uses atp
b. produces a proton gradient
c. generates a membrane potential
d. equalizes the charge on each side of a membrane
e. performed by a membrane protein pump
d. equalizes the charge on each side of a membrane
when a potassim ion (k+) passes from the soil into the vacuole of a root cell, what happens to the water potential of the vacuole
a. increases
b. decrease
c. stays the same
d. equals zero
a. increases
transpiration is
a. the photochemical reactions that take place in leaf cells
b. the evaportation of water from leaves
c. the movement of water through the plant
d. the movement of water into the roots
e. the movement of water out of roots into the soil
b. the evaporation of water from leaves
a source organ is an organ that _____ while a sink organ is one that ______
a. photosythesizes, stores carbohydrate
b. metabolizes starch, consumes sugars
c. photosynthesizes, is activelly growing
d. none of these
a. photosythesizes, stores carbohydrate
translocation of sugars from leaves to the roots is driven by
a. root pressure
b. transpiration
c. hydrostatic pressure
d. all
e. none
e. none
water potential is a measure of
a. how fast the water flows through the plant
b. the tendency of water to move from one place to another
c. the amount of water in the soil
d. relative humidity
b. the tendency of water to move from one place to another
cells that conduct sugar from leaves to the roots are called
a. phloem
b. parenchyma
c. schlerenchyma
d. meristematic
e. xylem
a. phloem
______ cells are responsibel for moving the aqueous sugar from sources, such as leaves, to sinks, such as roots
a. tracheids
b. vessel elements
c. sieve tube members
d. root hairs
e. trichomes
c. seive tube members
_____ is the current model of how water moves up the entire stem of a tree that is 150 ft tall
a. active transport
b. pressure flow
c. tension cohesion
d. root pressure
c. tension cohesion
active transport involves slow movement through the lipid bilayer of a membrane
a. true
b. false
b. false
active transport involves a specific transport protein in the membrane
a. true
b. false
a. true
in the pressure flow hypothesis of translocation the pressure is caused by the osmotic uptake of water by sieve tubes at the source
a. true
b. false
a. true
according to the pressure flow hypothesis of phloem transport, the combination of a high turgor pressure in the source and transpiration water loss from the sink moves solutes through phloem conduits
a. true
b. false
a. true
phloem transport of sucrose can be described as going for source to sink. which of the following would not normally function as a sink
a. mature leaf
b. shoot tip
c. growing root
d. storage organ in summer
e. growing leaf
e. growing leaf
the water lost during transpiration is an unfortunate side effect of the plants exchange of gasses. however, the plant derives some benefit from this water loss in the form of
a. mineral transport
b. evaporative cooling
c. increased turgor
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
which of the following has the lowest water potential
a. leaf cell walls
b. trunk xylem
c. root xylem
d. soil
e. leaf air spaces
e. leaf air spaces
water potential is generally most negative in which of the folowing parts of a plant
a. cells of the root cortex
b. mesophyll cells of the leaf
c. xylem vessels in roots
d. root hairs
e. xylem vessels in leaves
e. xylem vessels in leaves
what is the role of proton pumps in root hair cells
a. acquire minerals from soil
b. eliminate excess electrons
c. pressurize xylem transport
d. establish atp gradients
a. acquire minerals from the soil
xylem transports mainly sugars and amino acids
a. true
b. false
b. false
no energy input from the plant is required for xylem transport.
a. true
b. false
a. true
bulk flow depends on the force of gravity on a column of water.
a. true
b. false
b. false
compared to a cell with few aqua porins in its membrane, a cell containing many aquaporins will
a. have a faster rate of osmosis
b. be flaccid
c. have a lower water potential
d. have a higher water potential
e. have a faster rate of active transport
a. have a faster rate of osmosis
when a seed rehydrates and absorbs water it is called
a. glycolysis
b. imbibition
c. activation
d. spring
b. imbibition
a growth respons ethat is directed towards or away from something such as light or gravity is called _____
a. environmental growth
b. tropism
c. genetic growth
d. perceptive growth
e. meristematic growth
b. tropism
the acidification that loosens the cell wall in order for cell elongation to occur is stimulated by
a. auxin
b. gibberelin
c. cytokinin
d. abscissic acid
e. ethylene
e. ethylene
the steps between a plant's perception of a change in the environment and the plant's response to that change is best called
a. a mutation
b. hormone reproduction
c. pH change
d. signal transduction
d. signal transduction
if you were shipping green bananas from the tropics to a supermarket in motown, which of the following chemicals would you want to eliminate from the plant's enviro.
a. co2
b. cytokinins
c. ethylene
d. auxin
c. ethylene
what plant hormone has been shown to be involved in the rapid closing of stomata
a. auxin
b. cytokinin
c. ethylene
d. abscisic acid
e. gibberellin
d. abscisic acid
what substance is released fromt he seed embryo and initiates enzyme production in the aleurone layer
a. alpha amylase
b. gibberellin
c. water
d. sugar
e. starch
b. gibberellin
which plant hormone is most closely associated with cell division
a. ethylene
b. cytokinin
c. abscisic acid
d. phytochrome
e. brassinosteroids
b. cytokinin
auxin promotes stem growth and through cell division
a. true
b. false
a. false
gibberellin stimulates seed germination
a. true
b. false
a. true
cytokinin initiates cell division
a. true
b. false
a. true
imbibition of a seed is
a. saturation with water
b. the last step in germination
c. the emerence of the seedling
d. the metabolism of carbohydrates
e. the production of proteins from sugars and nitrogens
a. saturation with water
in deciduous trees, such as oak, the are where the petiole will detach from the stem when the leaf senesces is called the
a. sheath
b. apical meristem
c. drop area
d. abscission zone
e. rake indicator
d. abscission zone
the primary hormone involved in phototropism is
a. auxin
b. cytokin
c. gibberellin
d. abscissic acid
e. ethylene
a. auxin
a plant hormone interacts with other hormones to promote or inhibit growth
a. true
b. false
a. true
a plant hormone is required in large quantities to promote or inhibit growth
a. true
b. false
b. false
a growth response that is directed towards or away from something such as light or gravity is called
a. environmental growth
b. tropism
c. genetic growth
d. perceptive growth
e. meristematic
b. tropism
the plant hormone that is implicated in tropic response to light and gravity is
a. auxin
b. cytokinin
c. gibberellin
d. abscisic acid
e. ethylene
a. auxin
the steps between a plant's perception of a change in the environment and the plant's response to that change is best called
a. a mutation
b. hormone production
c. pH change
d. signal transduction
d. signal transduction
what is the function of calmodulin in a signal transduction pathway
a. to receive the stimulus and activate the second messenger in the transduction step
b. to induce the selective activation of genes
c. to be a membrane-bound hormone receptor that causes an influx of Ca2+
d. to form a complex with Ca2+ and activate specific molecules
d. to form a complex with Ca2+ and activate specific molecules
plants bend towards light because cell expansion is greater on the dark side of the stem
a. true
b. false
a. true
plant hormones function independently of other hormones
a. true
b. false
b. false
inhibits growth and closes stomata during water stress
abscisic acid
stimulates cell division by influencing the synthesis or activation of proteins req for mitosis
cytokinin
promotes elongation by increasing the plasticity of the cell wall
auxin
a gas that hastens fruit ripening
ethylene
promotes internode elongation; promotes certain seed germination
gibberellin
according to the acid growth hypothesis, auxin works by allowing the affected cell walls to strecth
a. true
b. false
a. true
of effect of gibberellins is to stimulate cereal seeds to produce
a. RuBP carboxylase
b. lipids
c. abscisic acid
d. starch
e. amylase
e. amylase
chemicals produced by one group of cells that affect distant target cells are called
a. secretions
b. hormones
c. steroids
d. enzymes
b. hormones
what molecule is thought to be the second messenger in the signal transduction or a hormone
a. Mg++
b. Mn+
c. NH3-
d. Ca++
e. glucolse
d. Ca++
the target cells for hormones
a. have special receptor sites
b. are located in roots
c. are no different from any other cells
d. are located in the interior of the plant
e. all of these
e. all of these
hormones produced by a particular species only affect that species
a. true
b. false
b. false
the plant hormone thought to be involved with responed to gravity and light is
a. abscisic acid
b. auxin
c. gibberellin
d. ethylene
e. none
b. auxin
the plant hormone that promotes cell division
a. auxin
b. gibberellin
c. cytokinin
d. florigen
e. ethylene
c. cytokinin
the plant hormone that promotes dormancy in plants and seeds is
a. abscisic acid
b. auxin
c. gibberellin
d. ethylene
a. abscisic acid
in contrast to most other plant hormones, which hormone has most inhibitory effects
a. auxin
b. gibberellin
c. cytokinin
d. abscisic acid
e. ethylene
d. abscisic acid
that plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening is
a. auxin
b. gibberelin
c. cytokinin
d. florigen
e. ethylene
e. ethylene
synthetic auxins are used as
a. pesticides
b. herbicides
c. fungicides
d. insecticides
b. herbicides
2,4-D, a potent dicot weed killer, is a sythetic auxin
a. auxin
b. gibberellin
c. cytokinin
d. phytochrome
a. auxin
hormones most closely associated with cell division
cytokinins
hormones involved in stem elongation and closely related chemically to certain weed killers
auxin
this hormone controls the rate or transpiration
abscisic acid
this hormone promotes bud and seed dormancy
ethylene
which effect below is not caused by auxin
a. herbicide
b. promotes cell division
c. promotes cell elongation
d. functions in tropism
e. indoleactetic acid
b. promotes cell division
which of the following is not a function of abscisic acid
a. may be involved in the dropping of fruits and leaves
b. promotes stomata closure
c. promotes seed dormancy
d. comfers resistance to water stress
e. stimulates cell elongation
e. stimulates cell elongation
most of the dry weight of a plant is the result of uptake of
a. water and minerals through mycorrhizae
b. co2 through stomata in leaves
c. co2 and o2 through stomata in leaves
d. water and minerals through root hairs
e. a and b
e. a and b
organic molecules make up what percentage of dry weight of a plant
a. 6%
b. 67%
c. 81%
d. 96%
d. 96%
which of the following essential nutrients does not have a role in photosynthesis, either as a structural componenet or in the synthesis of a component
a. K
b. Mg
c. Bo
d. H
e. Fe
a. K
which two elements make up more than ninety percent of the dry weight of plants
a. oxygen and hydrogen
b. carbon and nitrogen
c. nitrogen and oxygen
d. cabron and potassium
e. oxygen and carbon
e. oxygen and carbon
the bulk of a plant's dry weight is derived from
a. the hyrdrogen from water
b. the uptake of organic nutrients from soil
c. co2
d. soil minerals
e. oxygen from water
b. the uptake of organic nutrients from soil
sulfur is a component of DNA and activates some enzymes
a. true
b. false
b. false
nitrogen is a component of neucleic acids, proteins, hormones and enzymes
a. true
b. false
a. true
magnesium is a component of chlorophyll and activates many enzymes
a. true
b. false
a. true
which of the following best describes the general role of micronutrients in plants
a. they are cofactors in enzymatic reactions
b. they are primarily involved in controlling cell water potential
c. they are components of nucleic acids
d. they are necessary for the formation of cell walls
a. they are cofactors in enzymatic reactions
chlorosis is the yellowing of leaves due to decreased chlorophyll production
a. true
b. false
a. true
numbers such as 10-10-10 on a package of fertilizer refer to the percentages of three important mineral nutrients
a. true
b. false
a. true
nitrogen fixation is a process taht
a. releases nitrate from the rock substrate
b. recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials
c. coverts ammonia to nitrate
d. converts nitrogen gas into ammonia
d. coverts nitrogen gas into ammonia
most crop plants acquire their nitrogen mainly in the form of
a. no3
b. n2
c. amino acids absorbed from soil
d. nh3
a. no3
the enzyme complex nitrogenase catalyzes the reaction that reduces atmospheric nitrogen to
a. no2
b. no3
c. nh3
d. n2
e. no-
c. nh3
among important crop plants, nitrogen-fixing root nodules are most commonly an attribute of
a. legumes
b. members of the potatoe family
c. cabbage and other members of the brassica family
d. corn
a. legumes
the function of a root nodules leghemoglobin is to form a mutualistic relationship with insects
a. true
b. false
b. false
the function of a root nodules leghemoglobin is to supply the legume with fixed nitrogen
a. true
b. false
b. false
the function of a root nodules leghemoglobin is to regulate the supply of oxygen to Rhizobium
a. true
b. false
a. true
what is the mutualistic association between roots and fungi called
a. mycorrhizae
b. root hair enhancement
c. rhizobium infection
d. parasitism
e. nitrogen fixation
a. mycorrhizae
mycorrhizal hyphae form a covering over roots creating a large surface area that aids in absorbing minerals and ions
a. true
b. false
a. true
ectomycorrhizae do not penetrate root cells whereas endomycorrhizae grow into invaginations of the root cell membranes
a. true
b. false
a. true
the enzyme nitrogenase is inhibited by oxygen. which one of the following adaptations has evolved in response to this inhibition
a. leghemoglobin
b. root nodules
c. water ferns
d. carbohydrate transfer from roots
e. bacteroids
a. leghemoglobin
a symbiosis between plants and bacteria forms _____ and makes ____ readily available to plants
a. roots, nutrients
b. nodules, phosphorous
c. nodules, nitrogen
d. nodules, water
b. nodules, phosphorous
all of the following are acquired through the roots except
a. carbon
b. hydrogen
c. nitrogen
d. potassium
a. carbon
the element that is usually the most limiting for plant growth is
a. phosphorous
b. potassium
c. nitrogen
d. water
c. nitrogen
which of the following is the major role of potassium in plants
a. osmotic regulation
b. photosynthesis
c. atp synthesis
d. reproduction
e. lipid metabolism
a. osmotic regulation
which of the following molecules contain a phoshpate group
a. phospholipids
b. RNA
c. DNA
d. ATP
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
if a mineral deficiency is shown by chlorosis in the younger leaves of a plant, the deficient element is probably
a. mobile
b. immobile
c. a macronutrient
d. a micronutrient
b. immobile
NH3 does not accumulate in cells because it
a. is not found in nature
b. it destroys membrane potentials
c. N is not required by plants
d. NH3 kills helpful bacteria as well as pathogenic bacteria
e. none of the above
b. it destroys membrane potential
the primary method that N2 gas is fixed into a form that can be used by plants is by
a. microorganisms
b. lightening and volcanoes
c. man
d. all of the above
a. microorganism
a fungal symbiosis with plnats helpt the plant gain mineral nutrients. the primary nutrient absorbed nutrient is
a. calcium
b. magnesium
c. carbon
d. phosphorous
e. iron
d. phosphorous
organisms that can exist with light as an energy source and an inorganic form of carbon and other raw materials
a. do not exist in nature
b. are best classified as decomposers
c. are called heterotrophs
d. are called autotrophs
d. autotrophs
which organelles is found in plant cells but not in animal cells
a. nucleus
b. endoplasmic reticulum
c. mitochondrion
d. golgi apparatus
e. plastid
e. plastid
the polymer containing about 3000 units of glucose called cellulose is
a. the storage form of carbon
b. the form of carbon that is transported from one organ to another
c. a component of cell was
d. the initial substrate in cellular respiration
c. a component of cell wass
the golgi apparatus is the site of protein synthesis
a. true
b. false
b. false
which organelle takes up oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide
a. chloroplasts
b. ribosomes
c. nuclei
d. mitochondria
e. golgi apparatus
d. mitochondria
large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells taht specialize in producing which of the following molecules
a. lipids
b. starches
c. proteins
d. steroids
e. glucose
c. proteins
of the following waht do both mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common
a. ATP is produced
b. DNA is present
c. ribosomes are present
d. only b and c
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical energy
a. chloroplasts
b. mitochondria
c. leucoplasts
d. peroxisomes
e. golgi bodies
a. chloroplasts
chloroplasts are the chief site of cellular respiration
a. true
b. false
b. false
ribosomes are the site of cellular respiration
a. true
b. false
a. true
what structure is often deposited in several laminated layers and has a strong and durable matrix that affords the cells protection and support
a. primary cell wall
b. secondary cell wall
c. middle lamella
d. epidermis
b. secondary cell wall
which of the following is involved in protein synthesis
a. rough endoplasmic reticulum
b. smooth er
c. lysosome
d. central vacuole
a. rough er
the plasma membrane is composed primarily of what amphipathic molecules
a. phospholipids
b. polysaccharideds
c. proteins
d. cholesterol
a. phospholipids
which of the following structures aid in maintaining plant turgor pressure
a. chloroplast
b. ribosome
c. lysosome
d. vacuole
e. golgi apparatus
d. vacuole
which of the following class of compounds contain cyclic carbon rings that contain at least one nitrogen atom and are used by the plant as herbivory deterrents
a. proteins
b. chlorophyll
c. alkaloids
d. acetylsalicyclic acid
c. alkaloids
mosses differ from ferns in that
a. mosses are photosynthetic organisms
b. ferns produce seeds
c. mosses are nonvascular
d. mosses are heterotrophic
e. ferns are photosynthetic organisms
c. mosses are nonvascular
an evolutionary adaptation that helps prairie plants respond to fire and herbivory is
a. closing of stomata
b. lateral buds
c. apical dominance
d. absence of petioles
e. intercalary meristems
e. intercalary meristems
put in sequential order from growing tips to the root upward
1. root cap
2. zone of elongation
3. zone of cell division
4. zone of cell maturation
5. apical meristem
1
5
3
2
4
vascular tissue of plants includes all of the following cell types except
a. vessel elements
b. sieve cells
c. tracheids
d. companion cells
e. cortex cells
e. cortex cells
which functional plant lacks a nucleus
a. xylem
b. sieve tube cells
c. companion
d. c and a
e. c and b
b. sieve-tube cells
long thin tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water flow through pits
tracheids
living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes and transport sucrose and other organic nutrients
sieve-tube cells
the least specialized plant cells
parenchyma
cells with unevenly thinckened primary walls that support young parts of the plant
collenchyma
mature cells without protoplasts but with thick lignified secondary walls that may form fibers
sclerenchyma
which of the following is not ap characteristic of parenchyma
a. thin primary walls
b. flexible primary walls
c. lack of specialization
d. lack of secondayr walls
e. little metabolism and synthesis
e. little metabolism and synthesis
collenchyuma are nonliving cells that give rigid support
a. true
b. false
b. false
sclerenchyma have very thick cell walls
a. true
b. false
a. true
the fiber cells of plants are a type of
a. parenchyma
b. sclerenchyma
c. collenchyma
d. meristematic
e. xylem
b. sclerenchyma
the best word to describe the growth of plants in general is
a. perennial
b. weedy
c. indeterminate
d. derivative
c. indeterminate
the vascular bundle in the shape of a singel central cylinder in a root is called the
a. cortex
b. stele
c. endodermis
d. periderm
b. stele
pericycle is a waterproof ring of cells surrounding central stele in roots
a. true
b. false
b. false
the photosynthetic cellsi nthe interior of a leaf are
a. parenchyma
b. collenchyma
c. sclerenchyma
d. phloem
a. parenchyma
endodermis is a protective covering of the plant
a. true
b. false
b. false
what tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree
a. primary xylem
b. secondary xylem
c. secondary phloem
d. mesophyll cells
b. secondary xylem
additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells
a. vascular cambium
b. apical meristem
c. endodermis
d. phloem
e. xylem
a. vascular cambium
the area of a plant that is continually embryonic and produces primary growth of the shoot and the root is called
a. apical meristem
b. lateral meristem
c. vascular cambium
d. intercallary meristem
e. annual meristem
a. apical meristem
______ cells are responsible for moving the aqueous sugar from sources, such as leaves, to sinks, such as roots
a. tracheids
b. vessel elements
c. sieve tube members
d. root hairs
e. trichomes
c. sieve tube members
the type of meristem from which cells divide and makes a tree trunk get bigger around is the the
a. apical meristem
b. vascular cambium
c. intercallary meristem
d. none of the above
d. none of the above
mesophyll cells are cells that function to
a. regulate the movement of nutrient from outside the root to the vascular bundle
b. conduct photosynthesis
c. store sugar in the root cortex
d. move sugar from leaves to the roots
e. move water through the stem
b. conduct photosynthesis
the cell type that is initially made by a meristem is
a. parenchyma
b. collenchyma
c. schlerenchyma
d. xylem
e. phloem
a. parenchyma
sapwood is
a. nonfunctional xylem
b. functional xylem
c. functional phloem
d. nonfunctional phloem
b. functional xylem
at maturity, these dead cells provide rigid support by having very thick cell walls
a. parenchyma
b. collenchyma
c. sclerenchyma
d. fibers
e. tracheids
c. sclerenchyma
indeterminate growth of plants refers to
a. the growth of leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits
b. the ability of plants to grow indefinately
c. the ability of plants to produce many individuals from seed
d. alternation of generations
b. the ability of plants to grow indefinitely
cells that conduct sugar from leaves to the roots are called
a. phloem
b. xylem
c. parenchyma
d. sclerenchyma
a. phloem
differentiation of cells is the process fo making cells with similar genetic content into
a. cells with different functions
b. cells with different cell walls
c. tissues
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
water travels through the _____ of the root until it reaches the _____ where it must travel through the ______
a. root hairs, stele, xylem
b. root hairs, pericycle, xylem
c. symplast, endodermis, apoplast
d. apoplast, endodermis, symplast
d. apoplast, endodermis, symplast
lateral meristem adds ______ to a plant, while apical meristem adds _____ to the plant
a. length, girth
b. girth, length
c. cells, intercellular spaces
d. cells, tissue differentiation
b. girth, length
growth rings are formed because larger xylem cells are formed in the ______ and smaller xylem cells are formed in the _____
a. summer, winter
b. spring, summer
c. summer, spring
d. winter, spring
b. spring, summer
the embryonic tissue that produce secondary growth of a plant is called
a. apical meristem
b. lateral meristem
c. endodermis
d. cork
b. lateral meristems
cells that are responsible for moving water and minerals from roots to the leaves
a. tracheids
b. sieve tubes
c. endodermis
d. cortex
e. companion cells
a. tracheids
most of the plant body is composed of
a. dermal tissue
b. root tissue
c. ground tissue
d. vascular tissue
c. ground tissue
the tissues of the root and shoot system are classified as
a. ground tissue
b. dermal tissue
c. vascular tissue
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
perpetually young tissues where cells retain the ability to divide are
a. vascular
b. meristematic
c. protective
d. photosythetic
b. meristematic
the division of the lateral meristem
a. results in the production of primary tissue
b. causes an increase in the length of roots
c. produces floral tissue
d. gives rise to the epidermis
e. increases the diameter of roots and stems
e. increases the diameter of roots and stems
growth designed as primary
a. occurs along the sides of stems
b. is dependent upon apical meristems
c. increases the diameter of older plants
d. is responsible for additions to woody plants
b. is dependent upon apical meristem
parenchyma are specialized for secretion
a. true
b. false
b. false
cells that are the main water-conducting cells of a plant are
a. sclereids
b. tracheids
c. sieve tubes
d. parenchyma
b. tracheids
the cells that function with the sieve tubes are the
a. vessels
b. companion cells
c. adjunct cells
d. sclereids
e. periderm
b. companion cells
sieve tube members are alive at maturity
a. true
b. false
a. true
air and water vapor cross the epidermis via
a. pits
b. perforations
c. osmosis
d. stomata
a. pits
put the following in order
1. phloem
2. pith
3. outermost cortex
4. xylem
3
1
4
2
the main photosynthetic area of a leaf is composed of
a. mesophyll
b. cortex
c. xylem
d. epidermis
a. mesophyll
the veins of leaves are used for
a. support
b. identification
c. transport of water and nutrients
d. detachment in the autumn
c. transport of water and nutrients
mitosis takes place in whcih region of the root
a. zone of maturation
b. root cap
c. zone of elongation
d. meristem region
e. region of differentation
d. meristem region
lateral meristems
a. are groups of dividing cells
b. are responsible for increases int he width of a stem or root
c. are called cambium
d. produce secondary growth only
e. all of these
e. all of these
secondary xylem is formed in association with the
a. pith
b. inner face of vascular cambium
c. outer face of vascular cambium
d. inner face of cork cambium
b. inner face of vascular cambium
xylem is a type of ground tissue that conducts dissolved food
a. true
b. false
b. false
what system is commonly involved in the integration of rapid sensory input and motor output
a. neuroendocrine system
b. nervous system
c. endocrine system
c. endocrine system
which hormone is secreted by the thyroid gland
a. TSH
b. thyroxine
c. calcitonin
d. b and c
d. b and c
which hormone is not involved in glucose metablolism
a. insulin
b. glucagon
c. epinephrine
d. adosterone
c. epinephrine