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40 Cards in this Set

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photosynthesis
– process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars, and starches.
autotrophs
– organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer.
pigments
– light-absorbing molecule.
cellular respiration
– process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
fermentation
– process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen.
aerobic
– A process that does not require energy.
anaerobic
– A process that does require energy.
gene pool
– all of the genes in a population.
genetic drift
– random change in allele frequencies in small populations.
index fossil
– distinctive fossil used to compare the relative age of fossils.
ecology
– study of interactions of organisms with each other and their environment.
biosphere
– combined portions of the planet in which all life exists.
population
– a group of individuals of the same species that interbreed.
species
– have to breed and produce fertile offspring.
ecosystem
– all organisms living in the same place with their physical environment.
producers
– autotrophs which make their own food.
chemosynthesis
– process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates.
omnivores
– eats meat and plants.
nutrient
– chemical substance that an organism requires to live.
greenhouse effect
– a natural situation in which in heat is retained in Earth’s atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases.
biotic
– biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem.
abiotic
– physical or non physical factor that shapes an ecosystem.
niche
– a biotic and abiotic factor in which an organism lives.
primary succession
– succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists.
secondary succession
– succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil.
exponential growth
– the growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reduce at a constant rate.
cladogram
– diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms.
chloroplast
– organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy.
Calvin cycle
– reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars.
heterotroph
– organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes.
adaptation
– any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival.
evolution
– change over time.
paleontologist
– scientist who studies fossils.
fossils
– the preserved remains of ancient organisms.
logistic growth
– the growth pattern in which a population’s growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth.
weather
– day to day conditions in a particular place at a particular time.
food chain
– steps showing how energy is transformed between organisms.
domain
– most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom.
binomial nomenclature
– Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name.
evolutionary classification
– The strategy of grouping organisms together based on their evolutionary history.