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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Ribosomes
makes proteins
houses RNA
Cytoplams
holds organelles in the cell
Eukaryotes
membrane bound organelles
younger cell
unicellular+multicellular
Nucleolus
produces ribosomes
rough and smooth E.R.
rough-moves lipids and ribosomes
smooth-makes and moves lipids
Peroxisomes
produces hydrogen peroxide
Prokaryotes
no membrane bound organelles
older than eukaryotes
has nucleus,ribosomes, and cytoplasm
cell wall
stables the cell and connects it with other cells
chloroplats
uses light energy to make carbs from CO2
only in plant cells
cell membrane
acts as a barrier between cell and enviroment
vesicle
membrane bound sac that hold substances
mitochondria
makes ATP
golgi apparatus
packages and ships things throughout cell
lysosomes
digestive enzymes
nucleus
brain of the cell
stores DNA
lipid bilayer
makes up cell membrane
chloresterol in a cell membrane
makes membrane semirigid which stabalized the phospholipids
gap functions
in animal cells, connect cells and allows for chemical messengers to pass
phospholipid
make up cell membran bilayer
hydophilic head and hyrophobic fatty acid tails
endocytosis
large molecules entering the cell by a vesicle
Robert Brown
said eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus
osmotic pressure
increased water pressure due to osmosis
*cells can dir if placed in a hypotonic enviroment
* organisms w/cell wall become turgid because water enters
Robert Hooke
used a microscope to study cork
-called them cells
Schleiden+ Schwann
Schleiden-observed plants and said all plants have cells
Schwann-observed animals and said all animals composed of cells
Channel proteins
specific substances only let in a particular molecule, in a membrane
isotonic
solutions are in an equilibrium
Sodium potassium pump
pumps sodium ions(Na+) our of cell and brings potassium ions(K+) in
*as sodium leave it creates a concentration difference so they will fuse back in, when this happens it brings in sugars for food
*active transport
plasmodesmata
channels that connect cells in plant cells
exocytosis
large molecules exiting the cell by a vesicle
solute
a substance being dissolved into another
Disaccharides
many monosaccharides connected together by a condensation reaction
Hydrogen bond
a bond between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative oxygen atom
Fats
lipids that store energy
lipids use in the body
insulation,protection of organs, and long term energy
lipids
made up of chains of molecule called fatty acids
-C,H,O
Fatty acid
long chain of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms
-make up lipids
diffusion
tendency of molecules to move from areas of high concentration to low concentration
Bases
compounds that take H+ from solutions and have a pH more than 7-14
-bitter,slippery
Catalyst
something that speeds up a reacton
Temperature effect on enzyme activity
breaks or strenghens enzymes bonds
chemical reaction
the making or breaking of a bond
enzymes
a catalyst that is a protein
-end in "ase"
phagocytosis
food particles entering a cell
activation energy
energy that starts a reaction
adhesion
water and a substance interacting
ex. water and clothes washing
Carbs in the human body
provide short term energy
Nucleic Acids in the body
the genetic code for all life-DNA
4 elements that make up 96% of living things
carbon,hydrogen,oxygen,nitrogen
condenstation synthesis
OH+H coming together from a monosacharide to make H2O
proteins in the body
collagen, enzymes, helps build and maintain muscles
polypeptide
polymer- alot of amino acids/protein
carbohydrates
sugars that end in -ose
composed of C,H,O
monosaccharide
simple sugars usually C6H12O6 in a hexagonal arrangement
-carbs
facilitated diffusion
molecules pass into or out of cells via channel proteins
passive transport
passive transport
moving molecules into or out of cell without using ATP
*diffusion
solvent
substance that dissolves the solute
capillary action
where molecules follow on another
*food coloring
condensation reaction
when two monomers are joined together
Amino acids
building blocks of proteins
pH on enzymes
causes bonds to break, inefficiency
hydrophobid/non polar
fear of water
cohesion
water and water atract
4 compounds that provide raw material for life
carbohydrates,proteins,nucleic acids, and lipids
ionic bond
where an atom completely strips an electron from another atom
ion
a postive or negative charged atom
Nucleic acids
long chain of nucleotides
-C,H,O,N,P
hypotonic
solution with a lower concentration of solutes
Cell theory
1.All living things composed of cells
2.all cells come from prexinting cells
3.cells are the basic units of life
cell fractionation
seperating cells to study organelles
polar molecule
dissolves in water
RNA
a strand of nucleotides
DNA
two strands of nucleotides
covalent bond
where two atoms share a valence electron
hydrolosis reaction
when a disaccharide is broken apart
triglyceride
fatty acids linked together
water
70% of oragnisms
helps transporst materials
saturated fat
all carbons in the chain are bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms
Acids
compounds that release H+ into solutions and have a ph between 0+7
-sour,conduct electircity
Marker protein
identification tags-
-a type of integral protein
integral protein
extend all the way through the membrane, serve as channels
peripheral proteins
loosely bound to the surface
collagen
most abundant protein in the body
proteins
chains of amino acids
Active transport
transporting molecules through the membrane using ATP
hypertonic
higher concentration of solute than solvent
intercellular joining
allows two cells to join together
Anton van Leeuwenhook
used a simple light microscope to study pond water
Rudolph Virchow
all cells come from pre existing cells
osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane