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34 Cards in this Set

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True Breeding
if bred with self, offspring are identical to parents
genome
total amount of DNA
chromosome
the package of DNA, set number in cells
before condensing, they are in form of a long thin chromatin fiber
chromatin
complex of DNA and proteins,
chromosomes are made of these
gametes
reproductive cells, haploid, fuse with another to make a zygote
sister chromatids
each contain an identical DNA molecule, attached at the centromere
Principle of Segregation
for each trait, every person has two alleles that would seperate into each gamete
Homologous Pair of chromosomes
2 chromosomes that have genes for same thing at same place (loci)
Monomorphic
Polymorphic
-population with all same trait for a character
(ie. all same color)
-population with many variations
gene
unit of heriditary info, specific suquence of DNA
Binary Fission
reproduction in prokaryotes; one strand of DNA that duplicates then moves to ends of cell
Tetrad
group of four chromatids, pair of homologous chromosomes
Rule of Independent Assortment
Depending on how they line up along plate, each allele has a different possibilty to make a gamete
chiasma
the site of crossing over
recombinant chromosomes
individual chromosomes that carry genes from two different parents
(result of crossing over)
sex-linked trait
allele travels on the x chromosome
wildtype
the normal, denoted +
Recombinant phenotypes
phenotypes with a characteristc from mom and dad, result from crossing over
recombination frequency
#recombinants/ #total offspring
linked genes
genes on the same chromosome, and their recombination frequency is less than 50%
Dosage Compensation
Barr Body
females have double the genes because two Xs, they have to turn one off = Barr Body
Nondisjunction
homologous pairs don't seperate properly
-in meiosis I
-sister chromatids don't in meiosis II
Aneuploidy
a cell with abnormal number of chromosomes
trisomic
having 3 copies of a particular chromosome
2n+1
monosomic
having 1 copy of a particular chromosome
2n-1
Klinefelter Syndrome
XXY people will be male appearance, but sterile
Turner's syndrome
XO people will be girls
polyploidy
having an additional set of chromosomes
23, 46, 69, keep adding sets
incomplete dominance
equally expressed, usually the heterozygous is a different phenotype
(intermediate)
codominance
3 different phenotpes, not intermediate
Pleiotrophy
a gene can affect the phenotypes in many ways (sickle cell)
Epistasis
a gene at one locus alters the expression of a gene at another locus
polygenic trait
phenotype is due to additive effects
continuous variation
Norm of reaction
phenotypic range for a genotype, due to enviromental effects