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61 Cards in this Set

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Mitosis occurs in __________ cells and Meiosis occurs in___________ cells.
Mitosis occurs in BODY (somatic) cells, and Meiosis occurs in GERM (mother sperm cells; mother egg cells) cells.
The number of DNA molecules in a duplicated chromosome is_____
2
What are the 3 steps in the cell cycle?
1. Interphase
2. Cell division (mitosis or meiosis)
3. Cytokinesis
Name the 1st stage of Interphase and its activity.
the first phase is G1 and its activity is Organelles duplicated
The number of DNA molecules in a duplicated chromosome is_____
2
What are the 3 steps in the cell cycle?
1. Interphase
2. Cell division (mitosis or meiosis)
3. Cytokinesis
Name the three stages of Interphase.
1. G2
2. S
3. G2
Name the activity of the 1st stage of Interphase G1.
Organelles duplicated
Name the activity of the 2nd phase of Interpahse S.
DNA (chromosomes) replicated between gap phases
Name the activity of the last phase of Interphase G2.
Spindle apparatus formed
What are the 4 stages of Mitosis?
1.Prophase
2.Metaphase
3.Anaphase
4.Telephase
Name the 3 functions of Mitosis
1. Asexual (clones); prokaryote fission reproduction
2. Growth
3. Cell replacement
If an organism has 16 chromosomes, how many chromatids does it have in a cell that is just beginning to divide?
32
Spindle apparatus forms in and becomes visable in__________
Prophase
Spindle apparatus functions to pull apart____________
chromosomes
Spindle apparatus in composed of___________
Microtubles (tublin)
Spindle apparatus is not a permanent __________ structure.
Cell
The kinetochore is the place on the _________ where the spindle fibers attach.
centomere
In the 2-way pulling theory, chromosoms move as _____________ shorten.
microtubles
cancer is ________________
unchecked mitosis
The spread of cancer cells beyond their original state is called
metastasis
Cytokinesis is the distribution of cytoplasm to_________ cells.
daughter
Cytokinesis is called__________ in animals
cleavage
Cytokinesis is called ___________ in plants
cell plate formation
The cell plate is composed of ___________ and ___________
The cell plate is composed of microtubles and cellulose
Name the key features of the prophase of mitosis.
1. Nuclear membrane brakes down
2. Chromosomes appear
3. Spindles appear and attach to chromosomes
Name the key feature of the Metaphase of mitosis
Chromosomes line up at equator
Name the key feature of the anaphase of mitosis.
Chromatids pull apart and move to poles
Name the key feature of the telophase of mitosis.
Chromosomes reach poles
What is the dominate reproductive strategy among eukaryotes?
Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction, unlike asexual reproduction, results in new combinations of________________
genetic traits
Asexual daughter cells are __________ of each other and the parent.
identical (clones)
Homologous chromosomes come in_______ have___________ for the same trait and may exhchange parts in__________.
Homologous chromosomes come in PAIRS have ALLELES for the same trait and may exchange parts in CROSSING OVER (Prophase I of Meiosis)
Different or alternative forms of the same gene are called________
alleles
In what 2 stages of Meiosis do you find condensation of chromatin chromosomes?
Prophase I and Prophase II
Define Tetrad
Pairs of homologous chromosomes; 2 duplicated chromosomes (has 4 chromatids)
Define Synapsis
chromosomes get together
Define Crossing-over
non-sister chromatids exchange parts
Define Chiasmata or chiasma
evidence of crossing-over
In what stage of meiosis is there tetrad formation?
Prophase I
In what stage of meiosis is there crossing-over
Prophase I
In what stage of meiosis is there synapsis
Prophase I
In what stage of meisosis is there chromatids separate
Prophase II
In what stage of meiosis is there chiasmata
Prophase I
The 'main event' of Meiosis I is (pick one)
1. Non-sister chromatids exchange parts
2. Sister chromatids separate
3. Homologous chromosomes separate
Non-sister chromatids exchange parts
The 'main event' of meiosis II is (pick one)
1. Non-sister chromatids exchange parts
2. Sister chromatids seperate
3. Homologous chromosomes separate
Sister chromatids seperate
Genetic variation in Meiosis is (fill in the blank)
Crossing-over in _____________
Random orientation of homologous chromosomes in______________
Random_______________ of egg and sperm.
Crossing-over in PROPHASE I
Random orientation of homologous chromosomes in METAPHASE I
Random FERTILIZATION of egg and sperm
Another name for 'half the number of chromosomes"
haploid
Another name for "full set of chromsomes"
diploid
Name the cell division process where identical daughter cells are produced.
Mitosis
Name the cell division process where crossing-over occur
Meiosis
Name the cell devision process where random selection of polar bodies occur
meiosis
Define gametogenesis in animals.
formation of sex cells (eggs, sperm)
Define fertilization
union of egg and sperm
Define zygote
new individula (diploid) result of fertilization
Where in animal bodies are egg and sperm produced? These organs are called__________
gonads
Which will not develope into a gamete?
1.Primary speratocyte
2.Spermatid
3.Oocyte
4.Polar body
Polar body wil not develope into a gamete
What will a primary spermatocyte develope into?
secondary spermatocyte
What will a spermatid develope into?
spermatozoa (sperm)
What will a Oocyte develope into?
Ova (mature egg)
What is a karyotype?
Photographic inventory of an individual's chromosomes