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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Name the researcher that worked with Pus and sperm cells and discovered Nucleic acids.
Friedrich Miescher
Name the researcher that worked with Mice and discovered "Transforming factor"
Fred Griffith
Name the researchers that discovered transfer DNA not proteins.
Hershey and Chase
Name the researcher that worked with x-ray diffraction and discovered the key features of DNA structure (uniform, long, thin, repeats and spiral)
Rosalin Franklin
Name the researchers that discovered DNA sttucture and replication explained, coined "double-helix"
Watson and Crick
Fred Griffith worked with pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of_________ _________ and mice.
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Fred Griffith found that harmless cells were permanently transformed by a change in the bacteria's_______________
hereditary
Rosalind Franklin's research showed that DNA was of ____________ diameter.
Uniform
Rosalind Franklin's research showed that DNA was ___________ and narrow
long
Rosalind Franklin's research showed that DNA repeated __________ of itself.
parts
Rosalind Franklin's research showed that DNA of a __________ shape.
spiral
Watson and Crick are credited with showing the double helix____________ of DNA
structure
Watson and Crick are credited with confirming the principles of base-__________
pairing
Watson and Crick are credited with explaining how DNA __________ took place
replication
Watson and Crick are credited with coming the term 'double _______"
helix
Bacteriophages are nonliving________
viruses
Bacteriophages use ___________ for reproduction
bacteria
Bacteriophages have a sulfur-containing ___________ coat
protein
Bacteriophages can have their _____________ in their DNA made radioactive.
phosphorus
Name the four nucleotides in DNA
A, T, C, G (adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)
Name the bonding of the 4 nucleotides (bases)
A---T, C---G
Name the Purines
A, G
Name the Pyrimidines
T, C
Nucleic acids are composed of__________
nucleotides
Nucleotides are composed of__________, __________ and ____________
sugar, Phosphate (functional group,and Base
A _______________ may contain a purine, a pyrimidine, a pentose, and a phosphate.
nucleotide
The DNA backbone is composed of alternating ____________ and _______________ molecules.
sugar, phosphate
DNA replication is known as _______-___________ because 2 molecules are produced each with half old and half new DNA.
semi-conservation
What is the function of the enzyme Helicase?
Opens up the DNA strand
What is the function of the enzyme DNA polymerase?
Adds on free nucleotides and proofreads.
What is the function of the enzyme DNA ligase?
Seals short strands
A length of DNA that codes for polypeptides?
Gene
The central dogma of molecular biology describes the flow of information:
______________ DNA to DNA
______________ DNA to RNA
______________ RNA to proteins
The central dogma of molecular biology describes the flow of information:
REPLICATION DNA to DNA
Transcription DNA to RNA
Translation RNA to proteins
Where in the cells does replication DNA to DNA occur?
Nucleus
Where in the cells does Transcription DNA to RNA occur?
Nucleus DNA to RNA
Where in the cells does Transcription DNA to RNA occur?
Nucleus DNA to RNA
Where in the cells does Translation RNA to proteins occur?
Cytoplasm
The researcher Garrod worked on the human organism and discovered ______________
Genes make specific enzymes
The researchers Beadle and Tatum worked on the organism bread mold (neurospora crassa) and discovered _____________
Mutations = defective enzyme
Gene action: One gene codes for the amino acid sequence of the one ______________ chain.
polypeptide
What is the sugar for DNA?
Deoxyribose
What is the Sugar for RNA?
Ribose
What is the Base for DNA?
ATCG
What is the Base for RNA?
A U C G
What is the structure for DNA?
2-stranded helix
What is the structure for RNA?
1-strand
What is the function of DNA?
Genetic Code
What is the function of RNA?
(mRNA) messenger;
(tRNA) transfers a.a;
(rRNA) component of ribosomes
Name the 3 kinds of RNA and their functions:
mRNA - Carries the code
rRNA - With proteins forms ribosomes
tRNA - Transfers amino acids
3 sets of nucleotides (bases) on mRNA
Codon
3 sets of nucleotides (bases) on rRNA
Anticodon
The portion of DNA that is not translated and is a non-coded portion is composed of____________
introns
DNA and ____ relationship to each other is known as complementary.
RNA
How many different kinds of amino acids are there in proteins?
20
The genetic code is universal to all organism on___________
Earth
The genetic code consists of ________ condons.
64
The genetic code can specify more than __________ _________ for each codon
amnio acid
In Sickle-cell anemia is an example of _______-pair substitution.
base
In Sickle-cell anemia glutamate is replaced by__________
value
Sickle-cell anemia is a genetic disorder where the defective protein is off by one ________ ___________
amino acid
Bacteria: simplest cell; has cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA NOT in __________; host for ______________
nucleus, Bacteriophages
Virus: non-living as cannot __________ without a host; DNA or RNA in a protein package.
reproduce
Enveloped virus; type of virus that has pieces of _________ around it (the envelope)
host
Non-envelope virus: no __________
envelope
Bacteriophage; a ________ that uses bacteria for reproduction.
virus
Lysogenic cycle: Bacteriophage reproduce each Viral DNA _____________ into bacteria DNA
incorporated
Lytic cycle: Bacteriophage reproductive cycle. Viral DNA NOT ___________ into bacteria DNA
incorporated
The virus that causes AIDS is called ________. The AIDS virus is an ___________ virus.
HIV, enveloped
The 5, 3 designation represent the orientation of _________ in the DNA molecule.
Sugar