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35 Cards in this Set

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The DNA in a prokaryote is concentrated in a mass called the what?
Nucleoid Region
Name the three common bacteria shapes
Bacilli (rod shaped)
Cocci (spherical)
Spirilla (spiral shaped)
What is the rigid outer cell wall of bacteria composed of?
Peptidoglycan
Name two major groups of bacteria:
1. Gram Positive
2. Gram Negative
What is 'Gram-positive'
Bacteria that stains purple with Gram's stain
What is 'Gram-negative'
Bacteria that does not stain purple
What are the two large domains that prokaryotes (bacteria) fall into?
Archae
Eubacteria
Which scientist led to the recgonition of archae as a separate domain of life?
Carl Woese
Name two ways archae differs from eubacteria and eukaryotes
1. composition of ribosomes
2. kinds of lipids used in their cell membranes
What do archae lack in their cell walls?
Peptidoglycan
What kinds of bacteria live in extremely salty conditions?
Halophiles
What kind of bacteria do NOT require oxygen
Methanogens
What kind of bacteria live in hot sulphur springs and underwater volcanic vents?
Thermoacidophiles
How are eubacteria classified?
Based on how they obtain nutrients
Name the two kinds of eubacteria
Autotrophes: obtain carbon directly from carbon dioxide
Heterotrophes: obtain carbon from organic molecules
Which kind do most bacteria fall under?
Heterotrophs
Name the divisions of autotrophs
1. Photoautotrophes
2. Chemotrophes
Name the divisions of heterotrophes
1. Photoheterotrophes
2. Chemoheterotrophes
What recycle organic material back into the environment?
1. Decomposers
True or false: the official name of a species is binomial
True
Name three aspects of prokaryotes
1. all prokaryotes are bacteria
2. bacteria are everywhere
3. most bacteria are useful, but they may also cause disease
Define: antibiotics
Chemicals that kill bacterial cells without harming our own Eukaroyotic cells
What are most antibiotics synthesized by?
Soil bacteria and fungi for protection from other bacteria
Name the various effects antibiotics may have on prokaryotes:
1. preventing bacteria from synthesizing a cell wall
2. preventing bacteria from expressing their genes
3. interfering with DNA folding
4. blocking protein synthesis
5. inhibit synthesis of folic acid
Name two varieties of antibiotic resistance:
1. resistance genes allow bacteria to survive exposure to an antibiotic
2. other resistance genes allow bacteria to release enzymes that destroy the antibiotic
Name some characteristics of prokaryotes
1. lack of a true nucleus (no nuclear membrane)
2. Prokaryotes lack any membrane-bound organelles
3. Prokaryotes may also contain one or more smaller loops of DNA, which do not contain genes for life
What are the smaller loops of DNA found with prokaryotes called?
Plasmids
What does naming things allow us to do?
1. communicate what we know about something
2. name distinctions between different organisims
3. classify them, or assign a group
What did the 18th century physician/biologist Caralus Linneaus do?
He designed a TAXONOMIC HEIRARCHY for the classification of life
All matter is divided up as either what?
1. living
2. non-living
Name the three domains that all life is divided into:
1. archaea (bacteria)
2. eubacteria
3. eukarya
Name the two domains that are prokaryotes
Archae
Eubacteria
Name order that each domain is subdivided into:
Kingdom
Phyla
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Which two domain subdivisions are vital to naming organisms?
Genus and species
Name the human classification heirarchy:
Domain=eukarya
Kingdom=animalia
Phyla=cordata
Class=mammalia
order=primates
family=hominidia
genus=Homo
species=sapiens