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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
What term describes the structure of DNA? What scientists first described this structure?
Double helix
Watson and Crick
What 3 things make up a nucleotide of DNA?
nitrogen base
What are the 4 nitrogen bases of DNA and how do they pair?
Thymine - Adenine
Guanine - Cytocine
What is the complementary strand of the DNA given?

What is a gene?
One piece of DNA that codes for a protein
What does RNA stand for?
Ribonucleic acid
What are the 4 nitrogen bases of RNA and how do they pair?
Uracil - Adenine
Guanine - Cytocine
What are the 3 types of RNA?
Messenger RNA(mRNA)
Transfer RNA(tRNA)
Ribosomal RNA(rRNA)
What is the function of mRNA?
mRNA replicates a single strand of DNA into RNA
What is the function of tRNA?
tRNA translates the three-letter codons of mRNA to the amino acids that make up proteins
What is the function of rRNA?
rRNA along with proteins make up the ribosome
What is transcription?
Transcription is the process in which the mRNA replicates a strand of DNA into RNA
Where does the mRNA go after it leaves the nucleus?
To the ribosome
What is translation?
Translation is when the sequence of mRNA is decoded into amino acids by the tRNA
What are the 3 bases of tRNA called that complement the mRNA?
What amino acid always starts a protein?
What are 3 possible codons that end an mRNA strand?
What is the difference between a mutation and a mutagen?
A mutagen is anything that causes mutations while a mutation is the actual change in the DNA
What are some common mutagens?
Smoking, X-rays, UV rays, and sometimes saccharin
What are monosomy and trisomy?
Monosomy is when one chromosome is missing
Trisomy is when an extra chromosome is present
What is a polyploidy and how is it beneficial in plants?
Polyploidy is when an extra set of chromosomes is present. It is beneficial for plants because it allows them to grow extra large and not rot as fast ect.
What is a chromosomal deletion?
When part of a chromosome is missing
What is chromosomal inversion?
When part of a chromosome is flipped
What is chromosomal translocation?
When part of a chromosome is broken off of one chromosome and attached to another
What is another name for a point mutation?
base substitution
Because base deletions and insertions change the frame in which the mRNA is read they are called...
frame shift mutations
What falls under the category of pyrimidines
thymine and cytosine
What category do thymine and cytosine fall under
What falls under the category of purines
adenine and guanine
What category the adenine and guanine fall under
What enzymes make the covalent bonds between the nucleotides of the new DNA strand?
DNA polymerases
What are DNA polymerases
enzymes which make the covalent bonds between the nucleotides of the new DNA strand
What are introns
introns are strands of RNA that are just jumbled and are useless as far as we know
What are exons
exons are parts of a gene that remain in the mRNA after the introns are separated and will be translated