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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 stages of cellular respiration?
Citric Acid Cycle
Oxidative Phosphorylation
What stage produces 34-36 of the 36-38 ATP per glucose molecule?
Oxidative Phosphorylation
What stage produces FADH2?
Citric Acid Cycle
What stage consumes oxygen and produces water?
What stage Produces carbon dioxide?
Citric Acid Cycle specifically pyruvate to acetyl CoA
Identify the process

Diffusion of protons uses energy in a proton gradient that drives ATP energy
Identify the process

The set of proteins that uses proton concentration gradient to synthesize ATP
ATP Synthase
Identify the process

A sequence of electron carriers that shuttle electrons and pump protons
Electron Transport Chain
What is Cellular Respiration?
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway.

Consumes oxygen and organic molecules such as glucose

Yields ATP
How do catabolic pathways yeild energy?
Through the transfer of electrons
What is Redox Reactions?
The transfer of electrons from one reactant to another by oxidation and reduction.
What happens in oxidation?
A substance loses electrons or is oxidized
Oxidizers (=oxidizing agent) gain electrons

A substance loses electrons or is oxidized
Reducers (reducing agents) lose electrons or fuel
What happens in reduction?
What is gained from the electrons?

A substance gains electrons or is reduced
What happens during cellular respiration?
Blucose is oxidized and oxygen is reduced
What is glycolysis?
The breakdown of glucose (6 carbon) into 2 molecules of pyruvate (3 carbon)
What is the Citric Acid Cycle?
Completion of the breakdown of glucose.
What is Oxidative Phosphyrolation?
Driven by the electron transport chain in the mitochondiral membranes. The creation of ATP.
What does Glycolysis do?
Breaks down glucose into pyruvate.

Means "splitting sugar"

Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell
What does the Citric Acid Cycle do?
completes the energy-yeilding oxidation of organic molecules.

Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion

Before the citric acid cycle can begin pyruvate must be converted to acetyl CoA
What does Oxidative Phosphorylation do?
Several coupled processes:

Electron Transport


ATP Synthesis


Electron carriers from stages 1 and 2 donate electrons to the electron transport chain
What is the electron transport chain?
Electrons from NADH and FADH2 lose energy in several steps. At the end of the chain, electrons are passed to oxygen forming water

Electron transfer causes protein complexes to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space
What is the resulting H+ gradient in the Electron Transfer Chain?
An electrochemical gradient

Stores Energy

Referred to as a "proton-motive force"

Drives Chemiosmosis
What is Chemiosmosis?
An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy in the form of the H+ gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work

Involves diffusion of protons

Drives ATP Synthase (ase means enzyme) which is the enzyme that actually makes ATP
What is the name of the enzyme that actually makes ATP?
ATP Synthase
Steps in Oxidative Phosphorylation
Electron Transport


ATP Synthase
How much ATP is yeilded in the 3 stages?
A total of 36-38 ATP

32-34 ATP from Oxidative Phosphorylation

4 from Substrate-level Phosphorylation
Substrate level Phosphorylation adding Phosphate
Enzymes in the Cytoplasm
Simple reactions in glycolysis, citric acid cycle

No oxygen required, low yeid of ATP
Oxidative Phosphorylation level Phosphorylation adding Phosphate
Membranes in the mitochondria

Electron transport chain, chemiosmosis

Requires Oxygen - high yield ATP
What is fermentation?
A type of anaerobic respiration

cells produce ATP through aerobic cellular respiration

In the absence of oxygen
Cells can still produce ATP through fermentation
Glycolysis and citric acid cycle produce ATP in aerobic and anaerobic (fermentation) conditions
In alcohol fermentation
Pyruvate is converted to ethanol, CO2 and ATP

In lactic acid fermentation
Pyruvate is converted to lactate and ATP
What does Anaerobic mean?
in the absence of oxygen

Cells produce ATP through fermentation
What is the advantage of fermentation?
There is no need for oxygen
What is the disadvantage of fermentation?
Doesn't produce as much ATP
Fermentation and Cellular Respiration Compared
Both fermentation and aerobic cellular respiration use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate

Fermentation does not require oxygen but produces less ATP

Aerobic Cellular Respiration requires oxygen and produces more ATP

Aerobic Cellular Respiration uses all 3 stages - glycolysis, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP
Regulation of Cellular Respiration via Feedback Mechanisms
Cellular respiration is controlled by allosteric enzymes at key points in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

Why regulate cellular respiration - to slow down or speed up because cellular respiration needs to accomodate changes in metabolism. Too much citrate and too much ATP inhibits cellular respiration until levels are normal again.
Cellular Respiration Summary
Any ofthe 4 major macromolecule groups can be used in cellular respiration. (Carbohydrates, Protein, Nucleic Acides and Lipids)