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15 Cards in this Set

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Life Cycle
The sequence of life stages leading from the adults of one generation to the next.
Sexual Reproduction
The reproductive process that involves the union of a sperm and an egg.
Genome
A complete set of an organism's genetic material.
Asexual Reproduction
The production of offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg.
Chromosomes
The structures that contain most of the organism's DNA.
Cell Division
Cell reproduction (cells come from cells). Cell division makes it possible for a fertilized egg to develop through various embryonic stages and for an embryo to develop into an adult organism. Cell division ensures the continuity of life from generation to generation 0 its the basis of both asexual reproduction and the formation of sperm and eggs in sexual reproduction).
Binary Fission
A means of sexual reproduction in which a parent organism, often a single cell, divides into two individuals of about equal size. Prokaryotes use this method to reproduce. In prokaryotes, most genes are carried on a circular DNA molecule that, with associated proteins, constitutes the organism's single chromosome. Prokaryotes have smaller cells and less complicated chromosomes that eukaryotes.
Chromatin
The chromosomes exist as a diffuse mass of very long, thin fibers called this.
Sister Chromatids
The two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell.
Centromere
A region where two chromatids are tightly join together.
Cell Cycle
An orderly sequence of events that extends from the time a cell divides to form two daughter cells to the time those daughter cells divide again.
Interphase
-DNA Synthesis:
-The first subphase: G1
-The second subphase: S
-The third subphase: G2
The phase that the cell cycle spends most of its time in. This is a time when a cell's metabolic activity is very high, when the cell is performing its various functions within the organism. This lasts about 90% of the total cycle. Chromosomes duplicate in this period.
DNA SYNTHESIS is the main event of chromosome duplication and occurs in the middle of the interphase and serves as the basis for dividing interphase into 3 subphases.
THE FIRST SUBPHASE: G1 is a period before DNA synthesis begins. G1 is a time when the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the numbers of many of its organelles, and grows in size.
THE SECOND SUBPHASE: S is when DNA synthesis actually occurs. At the beginning of S phase, each chromosome is single. At the end of this phase, after DNA replication, the chromosomes double, each consisting of two sister chromatids.
THE THIRD SUBPHASE: G2 spans the time from the completion of DNA synthesis to the onset of cell division. Proteins that are synthesized here are essential to cell division.
Mitotic Phase
-Mitosis
-Cytokinesis
The part of the cell ctcle when mitosis divides the nucleus and distributes its chromosomes to the daughter nuclei, and cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm, producing two daughter cells.
MITOSIS is the division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei.
CYTOKINESIS is the division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells. This usually begins before mitosis is completed.
Sister Chromatids
The two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukaryotic cell.
Centromere
A region where two chromatids are tightly join together.