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56 Cards in this Set

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Cell Theory
Cell Theory
Cell
The smallest unit of life that call exist independently. These are the building blocks of all life.
Cell Membrane
This is the boundary of a cell.
Prokaryotic Cells
These are cells that were the first to ever exist on earth. They have no membrane bound nucleus containing DNA; their DNA is held in a nucleoid. The organelles are not bounded by membrane. They are simpler than eukaryotes.
Eukaryotic Cells
These cells make up plant and animal cells. They are all bounded by a membrane, and they process many organelles. They are more complex.
Symbiotic Bacteria
Symbiotic Bacteria: Bacteria-like organelles in eukaryotes are thought to have originated from these.
Endosymbiont Theory
This is the theory explains how complex cells can evolve from two or more simple cells living in a symbiotic relationship.
Plasma Membrane
This membrane surrounds all cells and it encloses protoplasm.
Protoplasm
This is the semi fluid contents that include the organelles and the nucleus of the cell.
Nucleus
This is the control center of a cell.
Phospholipids
These have two fatty acid chains and they make up plasma membranes. They are polar and they interact with water through the phosphate group.
Proteins
These also make up plasma membranes.
Lipid Bilayer
These is the double layered structure that is the foundation of the plasma membrane.
Fluid Mosaic Model
This is the model of the cell membrane that is widely accepted today - it was created by Singer Nicholson. It describes how the lipid bilayer are studded with a mosaic of proteins.
Glycolipids
These are the sugars that are bonded to the lipids.
Glycoprotein
These are the sugars that attach to proteins.
Channels or Transporters
These act as doors and allow specific molecules in and out of the cell.
Receptors
These are membrane proteins that recognize certain chemicals such as hormones, and signal the cell to respond in different ways.
Cell Wall
This is a rigid thick structure, found on plants, that surrounds the cell membrane.
Cytoplasm
This is the thick fluid that contains all of a cells organelles.
Cytoskeleton
This is founding the cytoplasm - it is a network of filaments and fibers that help shape and support the cells.
Cilia
These are short structures that cover a cell; they allow a cell to move.
Flagella
This is a whip-like structure that allows a cell to move within it’s environment.
Basel Body
This is the structure that the cilia/flagella connects with as the microtubes dip into the plasma membrane.
Centrioles
These are the centrically microtubular structures that are found in the cytoplasm of animal cells - they play a key role in cell division
Nuclear Envelope
This is the outer double layer membrane that surrounds the nucleus.
Nuclear Pores
These are openings in the nuclear envelope.
Chromosomes
These are proteins that DNA is wrapped tightly around. They are created during cell division.
Nucleolus
A darkly staining region within the nucleus
Ribosomes
These are spherical organelles that are count in the cytoplasm; these manufacture proteins.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
This is an extensive system of interconnected membranes that form flatted channels and tube-like canals within the cytoplasm. The channels are used to more substances to move substances from one part of the cell to another.
Rough ER
This is an ER that has ribosomes dotting it’s surface, it looks like a long sheet of sand paper.
Smooth ER
This is an ER that has no ribosomes attached to it.
Golgi Apparatus
This is the organelle in which the vesicles can eventually fuse with.
Vesicles
Membrane sacks that proteins are incased in, once they are done with the ER.
Lysosomes
These are organelles that contain digestive enzymes. They aid in cell renewal and are always breaking down old cell parts and real placing them with new ones.
Vacuole
This is a membrane bound sack that can store food, water, and wastes; they are most often found in plant cells.
Mitochondria
These break down fuel molecules, releasing energy. They have their own DNA suggesting that they were once free living bacteria. They are bounded by a double membrane.
Cellular Respiration
These are the oxygen requiring reactions that are needed to break down the foods that plants and animals give their cells.
Chloroplasts
These use energy from the sun to make sugars.
Brownian Movement
This is the jiggling motion that all molecules exhibit. Although this movement is not purposeful, it allows them to bump into other molecules
Gradient
This is the term that is used to refer to the net movement.
Passive Transportation
This is when a molecular movement that does not require energy.
Diffusion
This is the net movement of molecules from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentrations.
Osmosis
This is the diffusion of water across a differently permeable membrane.
Solution
This is when water is mixed with other molecules.
Solute
This is the other kind of molecules that are dissolved in water.
Hypotonic
Pure water is hypotonic.
Hypertonic
This is the opposite of hypotonic, one with a concentration higher than the cytoplasm of the cell.
Isotonic
This is a solution, water will move in and out of the cell, but no net movement will take place.
Facilitated Diffusion
This uses transport of proteins for movement across a deferentially permeable membrane.
Active Transport
This is molecular movement that requires energy.
Endocytosis
This is the process in which cells move large molecules and particles into the cell.
Phagocytosis
This is if material that is brought into the cell contains and organism or an fragment of organic matter.
Pinocytosis
This is if the material that is brought into the cell contains dissolved molecules.
Exocytosis
This is when large molecules and particles move out of the cell.