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23 Cards in this Set

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diffusion
the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
concentration gradient
the difference in concentration of molecules across a distance
kinetic energy
causes molecules to be in constant motion
equilibrium
the even concentration of molecules throughout the space they occupy
simple diffusion
diffusion across a membrane
osmosis
process by which water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
hypotonic
when the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than the concentration inside the cytosol
hypertonic
when the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher than the concentration in the cytosol
isotonic
when the concentrations of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal
contractile vacuoles
organelles that remove water and pump it out of the cell
turgor pressure
the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
plasmolysis
condition in a hyptertonic environment in which the cells shrink away from the cell wall and turgor pressure is lost
cytolysis
the bursting of cells
carrier proteins
proteins in facilitated diffusion that assist molecules into the cell
facilitated diffusion
type of passive transport used for molecules that cannot readily diffuse through cell membranes
ion channels
protein that provides small passageways across the cell membrane through which ions can diffuse
active transport
the movement of materials from an area of lower concentration to higher concentration, or "up" their concentration gradient
sodium-potassium pump
protein that trandports Na+ and K+ ions up their concentration gradients
endocytosis
process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles.
they become enclosed by a pouch of the cell membrane
pinocytosis
type of endocytosis that involves the transport of solutes or fluids
phagocytosis
type of endocytosis involving the movement of large particles or whole cells
phagocytes
cells in animals that use phagocytosis to ingest bacteria and viruses that invade the body
exocytosis
process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrand to let the substance out