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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
an organized approach of learning how the natural world works, based on two important principles

1) events in the natural world have natural causes
2) uniformity
the scientific method
idea that the fundamental laws of nature operate the same way at all places and at all times
uniformity
the act of perceiving a natural occurence that causes someone to pose a question
observation
a proposed explanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions
hypothesis
statement that forcasts what would happen in a test situation if the hypothesis were true
prediction
used to test a hypothesis and its predictions
experiment
used by scientists to test hypotheses, this compares an experimental group and a control group and only has one variable
controlled experiment
provides a normal standard against which the biologist can compare results of the experimental group
control goup
identical to the control group excempt for the independent variable
experimental group
also called the manipulated variable; this is what distinguishes the experimental group from the control group
independent variable
responding variable; factor that is affected by the independent variable
dependent variable
data measured in numbers
quantitative data
conclusion made on the basis of facts and previous knowledge rather than on direct observations
inference
when a set of related hypotheses is confirmed to be true many times, and it can explain a great amount of data, it is reclassified as this
theory
section of a research paper that describes how researchers proceeded with the experiment
materials and methods
section of the research paper that states the findings the experiment presented
results
section of a research paper that poses the problem and hypotheses to be investigated
introduction
section of a research paper that gives the significance of the experiment and future directions the scientists will take
discussion
process in which scientists who are experts in the field anonymously read and critique the research paper
peer review
objects used to improve the performance of a task
tools
tools that extend human vision by making enlarged images of objects
microscopes
microscope that shines light through a specimen and has two lenses to magnify an image
compound light microscope
part of a compound light microscope which magnifies the image
eyepiece [ocular lens]
part of a compound light microscope through which light passes after passing through the specimen. enlarges the image of the specimen
objective lens
part of a compound light microscope; platform that supports a slide holding a specimen
stage
light source in a compound light microscope that provides light for viewing the image. either reflected in a mirror, or an incandescent light from a small lamp
light source
the increase of an objects apparent size
magnification
the structure that holds the set of objective lens
nosepiece
the degree of enlargement
the power of magnification
the power to show details clearly to an image
resolution
type of electron microscope which produces an image of the object's surface
can magnify ojects up to 100,000 times
scanning electron microscope
[sem]
type of electron microscope that can magnify up to 200,000 times and shows an organism's internal structure
transmission electrom microscope
[tem]
standard system of measurement used by scientists; decimal system based on powers of ten
metric system
seven fundamental units in the system of units that describe length, mass, time, and other quantities
base units
used for measurements suh as surface area or velocity, these are produced by the mathematical relationship between two base units
derived units