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68 Cards in this Set

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cell
smallest unit that can carry on all of the processes of life
Robert Hooke
English scientist who used a light microscope to discover cells in 1665
light microscope
instrument that uses optical lenses to magnify objects by bending light rays
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch trader and fist person to observe living cells
Matthias Schleiden
German botanist who concluded that all plants were composed of cells
Theodor Schwann
German zoologist who concluded that all animals were composed of cells
Rudolf Virchow
German physician who noted that all cells come from other cells
cell theory
-all living organisms are composed of one or more cells
-cells are the basic units of structure and function in an organism
-cells come only from the reproduction of existing cells
surface area-to-volume ratio
the relationship of the cell's outer surface area to its volume
plasma membrane
cell membrane.
covers the cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of a cell
cytoplasm
region of the cell within the plasma membrane and that includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton, and all of the organelles except the nucleus
cytosol
part of the cytoplasm that included molecules and small particles, such as ribosome
nucleus
most prominent structure in a eukaryotic cell. contains a cell's dna. controls most of the cells function
prokaryotes
organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
nucleoid
part of a prokaryotic cell that holds the genetic information
eukaryotes
organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
organelles
variety of subcellular structures that perform specific functions for the cell
colonial organism
collection of genetically identical cells that live together in a connected group
tissue
group of similar cells and their products that carry out a specific function
organs
groups of tissues that perform a particular job in an organism
organ system
group of organs that accomplish related tasks
phospholipid bilayer
double layer of phospholipids lined up with their heads pointing outward and their tails pointing inward
sterols
lipids in the cell membrane's of eukaryotes between tails of phospholipids
cholesterol
the major membrane sterol in animal cells
integral proteins
proteins that emerge from only one side of the membrane.
they often have carbs attached and play important roles in transporting molecules into the cell
peripheral proteins
lie on only one side of the membrane and are not embedded in it
receptor protein
protein which recognizes and binds to substances outside the cell
fluid mosaic model
states that the phospholipid bilayer behaves more like a fluid than a solid
nucleoplasm
jellylike liquid in the nucleus which holds its contents and functions like a cell cytoplasm
chromatin
threadlike strands of dna when a cell is not dividing
chromosomes
chromatin condenses into this when a cell is about to divide
nuclear envelope
double membrane made of two phospholipid bilayers that surrounds the nucleus
nuclear pores
tiny, protein-lined holes that cover the surface of the nuclear envelope and provide passageways
nucleolus [plural nucleoli]
site where dna is concentrated when it is in the process of making ribosomed dna
ribosomes
organelles made of protein and rna that direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
mitochondria [singular mitochondrian]
tiny organelles that transfer energy from organic molecules to atp
cristae
folds in the inner membrane that contain proteins that carry out energy-harvesting reactions
endoplasmic reticulum
system of membranous tubes and sacs that functions as an intracellular pathway
cisternae
membranous tubes and sacs in the er
rough endoplasmic reticulum
produces phospholipids and proteins.
abundent in digestive glands and antibody-producing cells
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
lacks ribosomes.
produces lipids such as cholesterol, & testosterone and estrogen.
works in liver and kidney to detoxify
golgi apparatus
system of flattened, membranous sacs that receive vesicles from the er and modify their contents
lysosomes
vesicles that bud from golgi apparatus and contain digestive enzymes
autophagy
process in which lysosomes digest worn-out organelles
autolysis
the digestion of damaged or extra cells by enzymes of their own lysosomes
peroxisomes
similar to lysosomes but not produced in golgi apparatus.
abundant in liver and kidney
glyoxysomes
specialized peroxisomes found in the seeds of some plants. they break down stored fats
endosome
vesicle produced when cells engulf material and swallow it in the plasma membrane
cytoskeleton
network of thin tubes and filaments that crisscrosses the cytosol
microtubules
hollow tubes that hold organelles in place, maintain a cell's shape, and guide organelles and molecules in the cell
microfilaments
long threads of the protein actin that contribute to cell movement
centrosome
central point near the nucleus from which microtubules radiate outward
intermediate filaments
rods that anchor the nucleus and some other organelles to their places in the cell.
maintain internal shape of the nucleus
cilia
short hairlike structure that are present in large numbers and extend from the surface of the cell
flagella
long hairlike structures that are less numerous and extend from the surface of the cell
centrioles
two short cylinders of microtubules at right angles to each other that are situated in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
cell wall
rigid layer outside a plant cell's plasma membrane
cellulose
carb that make up cell walls
central vacuole
large fluid-filled organelle that stores water, enzymes, and other materials
plastids
organelles unique to a plant cell surrounded by a double membrane and contain their own dna
chloroplasts
plastid that uses light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
thylakoids
flattened membranous sacs in the chloroplast
chlorophyll
green pigment that captures light energy for the cell
endosymbiosis
process by which chloroplasts came about from prokaryotic cells
chromoplasts
plastids that contain colorful pigments other than green
proplastid
common precursor of chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts
amyloplasts
plastid that stores starch
nucleoid
region in a prokaryote where their genetic material is concentrated