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36 Cards in this Set

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1. Define Ecology
the scientific study of interactions among organisms and btw organisms & their environment or surroundings
2. List the levels of organization within a biosphere from most complex to least complex.
level of organization: biosphere, biome, ecosystem, community, population and individual.
4. What ecological inquiry methods do scientist use while conducting research?
Observing-the 1st step in asking ecological questions. What species lives here?
Experimenting-used to test hypotheses.
Modeling-to gain insight into complex phenomena such as the effects of global warming on ecosystems.
3. Distinguish the difference btw individual, population, and community from ecosystem.
individual-a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and reproduce. Populations-groups of individuals belonging to the same species and live in the same area. communities-gathers of different pop. that live together in a defined area. ecosystem-is the collection of all organism that live in a particular place together w/ their noliving or physical environment.
5. What is a food chain and how are they organized?
a food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten. Producers are the base followed by 1st level consumers, 2nd level consumers, and 3rd level consumers. They show the one-way flow of energy in an ecosystem.
6. What is a consumer, decomposer and producer?
Heterotrophs are consumers. Other organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply. Decomposer-heterotroph-breaks down organic matter ex. bacteria and fungi. Producer-make their own food by energy from sunlight or chemicals.Are essential to the flow of energy through the biosphere.
7. Distinguish btw the two types of producers. give ex. of each.
Autotrophs that use energy from the sun through photosynthesis. Plants, algae.
autotrophs that produce food w/o light but rely on enrgy within the chemical bonds of inorganic molecules. Chemosynthesis. ex. bacteria in Volcanic vent, hot springs.
8. Figure 3-8 illustrates a food web(define)
A food web links all the food chains in an ecosystem together. Producers(Marsh grass) is eaten by Zooplanton, consumers, eaten by plankton eating fishes, eaten by heron. marsh grass also eaten by grass hooper, eaten by harvest mouse, eaten by marsh hawk.
10. BLANK pyramid
Energy Pyramid-Only part of the energy that is stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level. Organism use energy for life processes, respiration, movement and reproduction. Only 10% is transfered.
16. BLANK pyramid
Biomass pyramid-The toal amount of living tissue w/in a given trophic level.Usually expressed in terms of grams of organic matter per unit area. Represents the amount of potential food available for each level.
17. What does this pyramid suggest?
The greatest biomass is at the base of the pyramid
18. Compare the way matter and energy move through the biosphere.
Energy moves in a one-way flow(one direction) from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs(producers) to heterotrophs(consumers).
Matter is recycled w/in and btw ecosystems.
19. What are the 4 biogeochemical cycles?
Water cycle, Nutrient cycle, Carbon cycle, and Nitrogen cycle.
In figure 3-11 what role do the roots play in the water cycle?
Water from the soil enters plants through the roots, through transpiration water enters the atmosphere, as the sun heats the atmosphere moist air rises, it cools, and condenses water vapor into droplets that form clouds, The droplets turn into rain,snow etc or precipitation, runs along ground surface or seeps into the soil, ground water enters rivers or streams, back to the ocean or lakes
20. In figure 3-11 what role do the roots play in the water cycle?
Water from the soil enters plants through the roots, through transpiration water enters the atmosphere, as the sun heats the atmosphere moist air rises, it cools, and condenses water vapor into droplets that form clouds, The droplets turn into rain,snow etc or precipitation, runs along ground surface or seeps into the soil, ground water enters rivers or streams, back to the ocean or lakes
21. Every living organism needs nutrients. Why do organisms need Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorous?
to grow and carry out essential life functions. Carbon-key ingredient in all living organisms. Nitrogen-to make amino acids to build proteins. Phosphorous-forms part of important life-sustaining molecules such as DNA/RNA
22. Define Abiotic and Biotic factor. Give ex.
biotic-biological influences on organisms w/in an ecosystem. ex. birds, trees, bacteria, the ecological community. Abiotic-Physical or nonliving factors that shape ecosystems. temperature, precipitation and humidity, wind, nutrient availability, soil type and sunlight.
23. According to the competitive exclusion principle how is it possible for warbler in figure 4-5 to live in the same tree?
Each warbler species has a different niche in the spruce tree habitat. By feeding in different areas of the tree, the birds avoid competing w/one another for food.
competitive exclusion principle-no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time.
25. What is permafrost?
a layer of permanently frozen subsoil. the ground thaws during summer and becomes soggy and wet, in the winter the topsoil freezes again. which rips and crushes plant roots result-tundra plants are small and stunted.
26. What is the result of permafrost on the plant life?
roots riped and crushed resulting in small and stunted plants.
27. Describe 3 types of symbiotic relationships and give ex. of each.
mutualism-both species benefit from the relationship ex. flowers and insects. commensalism-one member benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. ex. barnacles and whales. parasitism-one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it(weakens). ex. tapeworms, mammals, fleas & dogs.
28. What do all deserts have in common?
All deserts are dry, less than 25cm precipitation.
29. List biomes in order of increasing precipitation.
Desert, tundra, boreal forest, temperate woodland and shrubland, temperate grassland, temperate forest, northwestern coniferous forest, tropical savanna, tropical dry forest, tropical rain forest.
30. What is a coniferous (conifers)tree?
produce seed-bearing cones and most have leaves shaped like needles.
31. Both Boreal and temperate forest contain confers. How do the two biomes differ in their abiotic factors
temperate forest-cold winters, rich fertile soil, year-round precipitation. boreal-long cold winters, moderate precipitation, high humidity;acidic, nutrient poor soils
32 What distinguishes one biome from another?
a unique set of abiotic factors-particularly climate and has a characteristic ecological community.
33. What three factors can affect population size?
number of births, number of deaths, and the number of individuals that enter or leave the population.
34. Where does the word immigration originate? What does the prefix "e' mean?
Latin prefix in- meaing "in," and migrare, meaning "to move from one place to another" . "e" means out" emigration means the movement of individuals out of a populations.
35. What does a j-shaped curve show?
exponential growth. reflects unlimited resources and the absence of predation and disease.
36. Draw an S-shaped curve. What does an s-shaped curve show?
logistic growth-as resources become less available the population growth rate slows or stops. following a period of exponential growth.
37. What would cause population growth to slow or stop in an s-shaped surve?
as resources become less available
38. What is carrying capacity?
the number of individuals that a given environment can support.
39. What is the difference btw density dependent limiting factors and density independent limiting factors/ give ex.
Density-dependent limiting factors include competition, predation, parasitism and disease.
Density-independent unusual weather, natural disasters, sesonal cycles and certain human activities ex. damming rivers, clear cutting forest
40. Currently how fast is the human population growing?
The human population is growing exponentially.
24. What would eventually happen if two different species of lizards occupied the same area?
Competition would occur for ex. if they tried to eat the same type of insect.
9. Define and describe how each trophic level is organized.
Producers make up the first trophic level. Consumer depends on the tropic level below it for energy. Making up 2nd, third or higher trophic levels