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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is observation?
perceiving a natural occurrence that causes someone to pose a question
what is a hypothesis?
proposed explanation for your observation. always written as a statement.
prediction
statement that forecasts what would happen if the hypothesis were true
what is an experiment used for?
testing a hypothesis and its predictions
control group
provides a normal standard to compare experimental group to
independent variable/
manipulated variable
different factor being tested in an experiment
responding variable/
dependent variable
affected by the independent variable
theory
highly tested generally accepted principle that explains observations and experimental data
inference
conclusion made on the basis of facts and previous knowledge[rather than direct observations]
list the seven steps of the scientific method
1-observation
2-research
3-hypothesis
4-experiment
5-collect & analyze data
6-conclusion
7-publication
how many awu's do protons have? neutrons? electrons?
protons 1
neutrons 1
electrons 0
how many elements are naturally occurring?
1-92
what is the simplest atom that will bond with four items to make different things?
carbon
unlike a covalent bond, ionic bonds are separated ______.
easily
Who was Demitri Mendeleev?
he set up the first periodic table, using weight
who created the current periodic table [by atomic number]
henry mosley
families=
periods=
families=vertical
periods=horizontal
what is the periodic law?
elements repeat at regular intervals if elements are put in order by atomic number
isotopes have a different number of _______ and a different ________.
neutrons; weight
what type of carbon is used for carbon dating?
carbon 14
four types of energy?
chemical[from food]
thermal
electrical[nerve messages]
mechanical[used by muscles]
first law of thermodynamics
energy can be neither created nor destroyed, but only changed from one form to another
second law of thermodynamics
whenevery energy is changed from one form to another, some is changed to heat energy, which cannot be used by living things to do work
what is the difference in atoms between the three states of matter?
solids:molecules are tight
liquids:molecules can move around
gas:molecules freely moving
why do atoms move around?
because their electrons are constantly moving
how is a chemical reaction written?
as an equation
chemical reactions that have a net release of energy are called? [& what is an example of this?]
exergonic reaction;
respiration
reactions that have a net absorption are called? [& example]
endergonic;
photosynthesis
each enzyme is ________ to one ________ __________.
specific;
chemical reacton
Since water is polar, it can dissolve..
other polar substances
our only visible living cells are? because?
the eyes; they have the water in tears to keep them alive
the temperature needed for a water molecule to break cohesive bonds with another molecule and change to a gas
boiling point
water is unique in that it is more dense..
as a liquid than as a solid
at what temperature is water most dense?
4 degrees celcius
mixture composed of particles larger than ions or molecules [ie blood] pulled to the bottom by gravity
suspension
mixtures that do not 'settle out' although they have bigger particles
colloid
what are the two states of a colloid?
gel or sol
acids and bases are based on?
the disassociation of water
what are the four elements that compose the mass of living things?
oxygen
carbon
hydrogen
nitrogen