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44 Cards in this Set

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compound made of primarily carbon atoms
organic compound
compounds that do not contain carbon atoms
inorganic compounds
bond formed when two atoms share one pair of electrons
single bond
bond in which atoms share two pairs of electrons, represented by two parallel lines
double bond
sharing of three pairs of electrons, shown by three parallel lines
triple bond
clusters of atoms that influence the characteristics of the molecules they compose
functional groups
soluble in water
hydrophilic
organic compound with a hydroxyl group attached to one of its carbon atoms
alcohol
smaller, simpler molecules that bond to form polymers
monomers
molecule that consists of repeated, linked units
polymer
large polymers
includes carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
macromolecules
chemical reaction through which monomers form polymers.
each time a monomer is added to a polymer, a water molecules is released
condensation reaction
process in which water is used to break down a polymer
hydrolyisis
compound that store a large amount of energy in their overall structure
adenosine triphosphate
[atp]
organic compounds composed of carbon
carbohydrates
the momomer of a carbohydrate
monosaccharide
when two monosaccharides combine in a condensation reaction to form a double suger
disaccharide
complex molecule composed of three more monosaccharides
polysaccharide
polysaccharide in which animals store glucose
glycogen
polysaccharide in which plants store glucose molecules
starch
makes up 50 percent of wood.
large polysaccharide made by plants
cellulose
organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
proteins
monomers that link to form proteins
amino acids
the reactant being catalyzed
substrate
side chain that bonds at the fourth site of an amino acid.
can be complex or simple, gives proteins different shapes
r group
when carbon atoms are not bonded to the maximum number of atoms to which they can bond; instead have double bonds within the carbon chain
unsaturated
when each carbon atom is covalently bonded to four atoms
saturated
composed of three molecules of fatty acid joined to one molecule of glycerol
triglyceride
the two layers of phospholipids that make up a cell membrane
lipid bilayer
attracted to water molecules
hydrophilic
doesn't interact with water molecules; 'water fearing'
hydrophobic
these have two, rather than three, fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol, with a phosphate group attached to the third carbon of the glycerol
phospholipids
monomers that compose dna and rna polymers.
contain a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a ring shaped nitrogenous base
nucleotide
carboxyl [polar] &
hydro-carbon[nonpolar]
the two ends of a fatty acid chain
triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes, & pigments
the five types of lipids
because they have larger numbers of carbon-hydrogen bonds per gram
why do lipid molecules store more energy per gram than other organic compounds?
saturated and unsaturated
two types of triglycerides
protein that stimulates cells to take up glucose
insulin
the inability of the body to make or respond to insulin
diabetes
mainly fat
when the body doesnt make/respond to insulin, a body's cells must switch to burning what as fuel?
only that substrate fits into its active site
why do enzymes act only on a specific substrate?
enzyme's shape
the linkage of enzyme and substrate creates a slight change in?
reducing activation energy
the change in the enzymes shape weakens some chemical bonds in the substrate, doing what?
twenty
how many amino acids are there?