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61 Cards in this Set

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Ribosomes
Makes Protiens
Golgi Complex
Packages and distriputes protiens
Cytoplasm
Where chemical reactions take place
Nucleus
Control center of the cell
Nucleolus
Makes ribosomes
Nuclear Membrane
Keeps gentic material inside - holds DNA
Cell (Plasma) Membrane
Lets stuff in and out of the cell
Mitochondria
Makes and stores energy - "power house"
Rough ER
Makes and transports protiens
Vacuole
Storage
Cell Wall
(Plant Cell Only) Extra Layer of support, structure
Chloroplast
Makes energy for cell through sugars
Smooth ER
Makes and transports Lipids
What are the three (3) parts of the Cell Theory?
(1) All living things are made of one or more cells. (2) Cells are the basic units of stucture and function in organisms
(3) All cells arise from existing cells
How many cells are in the human body?
100 Trillion
What other things beside cytoplasm does the cell membrane let enter and exit?
Gases, Nutrients, and Wastes
What three (3) things does DNA do?
(1) Making Proteins
(2) Regulates Cellular Activities
(3) Enables cells to reproduce
When did early prokaryotes live on Earth?
3.5 Billion Years Ago
What is a modern example of prokaryote?
Bacteria
How is the DNA arranged in a prokaryote?
The genetic material is a single circular molecule of DNA located near the center of the cell, suspended within the cytoplasm
What structure surrounds the cell wall in some prokaryotes?
Capsule
When did the first eukaryotic cells evolve
2.5 Billion years ago
What two (2) functions does cilia serve?
(1) Propels some cells through their environment
(2) Move substances across the cells surface
Prokaryotes
A single celled organism that lacks a nucleus and toher internal compartments
Eukaryote
An organism whose cells have a nucleus
Organelle
A structure that carries out specific activites in the cell
Cilia
Short, hairlike structures
What makes up the cytoskelton?
A web of protien fibers
What two (2) functions deos the cytoskeleton serve in the cell?
(1) Holds the cell together
(2) Keeps the cell's membranes from collapsing
Is the cell membrane like a shell or a soap bubble
Soap Bubble
What type of molecule causes the membrane to be fluid
Lipids
The cell membrane is selectively permeable, what does that mean?
Picky. Some stuff in, but not all stuff
Phospholipid
A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids
What part of the phosholipid is polar?
The head
What part of the phosholipid is nonpolar?
The tail
Which part of the phospholipid is attracted to water?
The head
Which part of the phospholipid is repelled by water?
the tails
Lipid Bilayer
The layers in which phospholipids are arranged in
What kind of substances can pass through the lipid bilayer
Nonpolar substances (lipids) water
Marker Proteins
Attach to a carbohydrate on the cells surface advertise cell types.
Receptor Protein
Bind specific substances, such as signel molecules, outside the cell
Transport Protein
Aid the movement of substances into and out of the cell
What surrounds the nucleus?
A nuclear membrane
How does materials pass out of the nucleus?
Pass through the nuclear pores
What structure is inside the nucleus?
Nucleolus
What does this stucture make?
Ribosomes
What does DNA look like in the nucleus most of the time?
Long, thin strands
What is the name for long thin strands in the nucleus?
Chromosomes
How many chromosomes do human body cells have?
46
How many chromosomes do garden peas have?
14
What organelle makes proteins in a cell?
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER - An extensive system of internal membranes that move proteins and other substances through the cell
How is it like the cell membrane
2 Layers of Lipids + Proteins
ER with ribosomes attached to is called
Rough ER
What does the Rough ER Do?
Makes and moves proteins
Vessicle
A small, membrane-bound sac that transports substances in cells
ER with no ribosomes attached is called
Smooth ER
What does smooth ER do?
Making and transporting lipids
What two major events take place once proteins enter the golgi apparatus?
(1) Enzyme modifies protiens
(2) Protein wrapped in a vossicale (package)
Name the two membranes that a mitachondrion has
Inner and Outer
what are three ways that plant cells are different from animal cells
Plant cells have chloroplast, central vacuole and a cell wall