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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Natural Selection
a population can change over generations if individuals that possss certain heritable traits leave more offspring than other individuals
Evolutionary Adaptation
an accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organisms' ability to survive and reproduce in specific enviornments
change over time in the gentic composition of a population
-viewed species as unchanging
-arranged species on a ladder of increasing complexity
Carolus Linneaus
-developed the two part system of naming organisms according to genus and species
the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying organisms
are remains or traces of organisms from the pst
Sedimentary Rocks
formed from the sand and mud that settle to the bottom of lakes and marshes
study of fossils
Georges Cuvier
- inferred that extingctions must have been a common occurance in the history of life
-proposed that periodic catastrophes were usually confined to local geographic regions, which were repopulated by species immagrating from other areas
each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe such as a flood or drought that destroyed many of the species living at the time
the idea that profound change can take place through the cumulative effect of slow but continuous processes
James Hutton
peropposed valleys were formed by rivers wearing through rocks and that sedimentary rocks containing marine fossils were formed from particles that had eroded from the land and been carried by rivers to the sea
Charles Lyell
proposed that the same geologic processes are operating today as in the past and at the same rate
Jean- Baptiste de Lamarck
remembered not for his visionary regognition that evolutionary change explains the fossil record and organisms adaptations to their enviornments but for the incorrect mechanism he proposed to explain how evolution occurs
use and disuse
the idea that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, whiole thoses that are not used deteriorate
inheritance of acquired characterists
stated that an organism could pass these modifications to its offspring
descent with modification
the phrase Darwin used in The Origin of Species instead of evolution
artificial selection
modifying species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits
certains characterists in related species have an underlying similarity even though they may have different functions
homologous structures
represent variations on a structural theme that was preseent in the common ancestor
vestigial organs
stuctures of marginal, if any, importance to the organism
Darwin's overservations of the geographic distribution of species