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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anything that occupies space and has mass
matter
the quantity of matter an object has
mass
the force produced by gravity acting on mass
weight
substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter
elements
chart that summarizes information about the elements
periodic table
simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element
atom
the central region of an atom; makes up the bulk of an atom; consists of two kinds of subatomic particles
nucleus
positively charged subatomic particle; the number of these becomes an element's atomic number
proton
this subatomic particle has no charge
neutron
the number of protons in an atom
atomic number
number that is equal to the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
mass number
negatively charged subatomic particles in an atom
electrons
three dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron and correspond to specific energy levels
orbital
atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
isotopes
takes into account the relative amounts of each isotope in the element, and this average is the mass found in the periodic table
average atomic mass
made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions
compounds
elements that do not react with other elements under normal conditions
noble/inert elements
the attractive formces that hold atoms together
chemical bonds
forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
covalent bond
the simplest part of a substance that retains all of the properties of that substance and can exist in a free state
molecule
the attraction between positive and negative electrical charges
ionic bond
an atom or molecule with an electrical charge
ion
the ability to do work
energy
one or more substances change to produce one or more different substances
chemical reaction
substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
reactants
substance that forms in a chemical reaction
products
sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
metabolism
the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
activiation energy
chemical substances that reduce the amount of activation energy that is needed for a reaction to take place
catalyst
a protein or rna molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions without being permanently changed or destroyed
enzyme
oxidation-reduction reaction;
reaction in which electrons are transferred between atoms
redox reactions
reaction in which a reactant loses one or more electrons, becoming positive in charge
oxidation reaction
reaction in which a reactant gains one or more electrons, becoming negative in charge
reduction reaction
compound with an uneven distribution of charge
polar
the force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial or full negative charge
hydrogen bond
attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
cohesion
molecules at the sruface of water are pulled downward, and the water acts as if it has a thin 'skin'
surface tension
attractive force between two particles of different substances
adhesion
the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
capillarity
mixture in which one or more substances are uniformly distributed in another substance
solution
substance dissolved in the solvent
solute
the substance in which the solute is dissolved
solvent
amount of solute dissolved in a fixed amount of the solution
concentration
solution in which no more solute can dissolve
saturated solution
solutions in which water is the solvent
aqueous solutions
hydroxide ion
OH-
hydronium ion
H3O+
solution with a greater number of hydronium ions
acid
solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions
base/alkaline
scale that compares the relative concentrations of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions in a solution
pH scale
chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or a base added to a solution
buffer