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45 Cards in this Set

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Evolution
the change that occurs in organisms' characteristics through time
ecology
how organisms live in their environment
___________ was the first to propose natural selection as the mechanism of evolution.
Charles Darwin.
Natural Selection produces diversity through _________.
adaptation
5 levels of organization (small to big)
Population, Communities, Ecosystems, Biomes, biosphere
population
individuals of the same species that live together
community
populations of different species that live together in the same place
ecosystem
a community and the nonliving factors with which it interacts
biomes
major terrestrial assembleges of plants, animals and microorganisms that occur over wide geographical areas that have distinct physical characteristics.
species
sexually reproducing organsims that limit mating to others of their own kind. (reproductively isolated)
biosphere
all the world's biomes, along with its marine and fresh water assembleges
describe the food chain
energy flows through an ecosystem from plant to herbivore to carnivore.
An _________ is a dynamic ecological system that consumes engergy and cycles materials.
ecosystem
Niche
(pattern of living) the sum total of all the ways an organism uses the resources of its environment
_______ enhance fitness in a niche.
adaptations
Fitness
a measure of reproductive success
Resource partitioning
species that live in the same geographical area avoid competition by living in different protions of the "habitat" or by using different food or other resources.
Habitat
the place where an organism lives
character displacements
the changes that evolve in 2 species to reduce niche overlap (to lessen the degree to which they compete for the same resources)
Innate Capacity for Increas
(Biotic Potential), the rate at hich a population will increase when there are no limits on its rate of growth
Realized rate of population increase (r)
the number of individuals added to the population minus the number lost from it
Immigrants and Emmigrants
Immigrants are new individuals entering and residing with the population whereas emmigrants are those leaving it.
what is the formula for r (realized rate of population increase)?
r=(birth + immigration)- (death + emmigration)
Exponential Growth
the number of individuals grows rapidly at first, as the number of individuals is increasing exponentially
why are species repoductively isolated?
because they have similar adaptations
Carryin Capacity (k)
a population ultimately stabilizes at a certain size.
if N= the number of individuals present at any one time what is the populatio growth rate?
=rN([k-N]/k)
what are life history strategies?
The particular set of adaptation that adusts an organism's reproductive rate to its environment
population growth is limited by ________.
The ability of the environment to support the population.
Ecological Footprint
the amount of productive land required to support an individual at the standard of living of a particular propulation through the course of his/her life.
Fitness
a measure of reproductive success
Resource partitioning
species that live in the same geographical area avoid competition by living in different protions of the "habitat" or by using different food or other resources.
Habitat
the place where an organism lives
character displacements
the changes that evolve in 2 species to reduce niche overlap (to lessen the degree to which they compete for the same resources)
Innate Capacity for Increas
(Biotic Potential), the rate at hich a population will increase when there are no limits on its rate of growth
Realized rate of population increase (r)
the number of individuals added to the population minus the number lost from it
Immigrants and Emmigrants
Immigrants are new individuals entering and residing with the population whereas emmigrants are those leaving it.
what is the formula for r (realized rate of population increase)?
r=(birth + immigration)- (death + emmigration)
Exponential Growth
the number of individuals grows rapidly at first, as the number of individuals is increasing exponentially
why are species repoductively isolated?
because they have similar adaptations
Carryin Capacity (k)
a population ultimately stabilizes at a certain size.
if N= the number of individuals present at any one time what is the populatio growth rate?
=rN([k-N]/k)
what are life history strategies?
The particular set of adaptation that adusts an organism's reproductive rate to its environment
population growth is limited by ________.
The ability of the environment to support the population.
Ecological Footprint
the amount of productive land required to support an individual at the standard of living of a particular propulation through the course of his/her life.