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33 Cards in this Set

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Biology:
the study of life
Paradigm:
large body ofinformation or beliefs widely accepted bya group of individuals
Paradigm shift:
A "revolutionary" change in an accepted beliefor way of thinking
Example of a paradigm shift
science and religion
earth as center of the universe to the sun being in the center
Example of a paradigm shift(Darwin)
Darwin's theory of evolution
How are cells organized
(hierachy)
aroms-molecules-organelles-cells
Cell:
the basic unit of life
How are organisms organised? (hierachy)
tissues-organs-organ system-organism
Population Level Organization
(hierachy)
population-species-community- ecostystem
Emergent Properties:
new properties present at one level that are not seen in previous level
Deductive Reasoning:
General principal to make specific conclusion

(large to small)
Inductive reasoning:
small precise ideas to larger,broader ideas.
Whats the scietific system
observation
hypothesis
rediction
experimentation
conclusion
Hypothesis:
possible explanation for an observation
Reductionism:
To break a complex process down to its similar parts
Model:
to stimulate phenomena thats difficult to study
Charles Darwin was what?
naturalist
what was darwins theory
natural selection
what wa his voyage that helped him find his discovery?
Went on a mapping expedition around coastal South America (voyage of the beatle)
Evolution
modification of a species over generations
Natural Selection
individuals with superior physical or behavioral characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce that those without such characteristics
Thomas Malthus believed in what (vs)
Population growth vs. availability of resources
How did Thomas Malthus's theory prove Darwins
he realized not all members of population survive (natural selection) only the strongest survive
ontogeny
A species pattern of development
Phylogeny:
the evolutionary history of a species
What are two elements to comparitive anatomy?
Homologous Structures
Analogous structures
Homologous structures:
have same evolutionary origin, but different structure and function.
analogous structures:
have similar structure and function, but different evolutionary origing
Divergent Evolution:
selection that favors changes making two or more grops less similar
Cell theory
All living organisms are made of cells, and all living cells are made from preexisting cells
Molecular basis of inheritance
DNA encodes genes which conrol living organisms and are passed from one generation to the next
Evolution Change
Living organisms have evolved from the same origin event. The diversity of life is the result of evolutionary change
Evoluionary Conservation
Critical characteristics of early organisms are preserved and passed on to future generations