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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
energy
expressed in kJ or kcal, required to do work
work
any change in state of motion or matter, requires energy
energy conversion
energy changing forms
Potential energy
capacity to do work
Kinetic energy
energy of motion
1st law of termodynamics
conservation of energy
2nd law of thermodynamics
Every energy conversion increases the entropy of the universe.
Entropy
spreading of energy
Metabolism
sum of chemical activities in an organism
Metabolism
sum of chemical activities in an organism
Anabolism, Anabolic reactions
Processes that builed complex molecules from simpler ones.
Catabolism, catabolic reactions
processes that break down complex molecules into simpler ones.
Free energy
energy available to do work in a chemical reactiion, changes depend on bond energies and concentrations of reactants/products
bond energy
energy required to break a bond
dynamic equilibrium
forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
exergonic reactions
the products have less free energy than the reactants, energy is released, spontaneous, favored reaction
endergonic reactions
the products have more free energy than the reactants, energy must be supplied from the exergonic reactions, not spontaneous
coupled reaction
endergonic and exergonic reactions couple to provide the free energy for the endergonic reaction
ATP
the main energy currency in cells; a nucleotide with adenine base, ribose sugar, and a chain of 3 phosphate groups;
phosphorylated compounds
the inorganic phosphate is removed from ATP transferred onto another compound rather than being immediately released; usually coupled with ATP hydrolysis
Redox reactions
reduction, gain electrons; oxidation, lose electrons; both occur simultaneously in cells;
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
a common intermediate acceptor
NADP+/NADPH
important in photosynthesis
FAD/FADH2
flavin adenine dinucleotide
Cytochromes
small iron-containing proteins; iron serves as electron acceptor
Enzymes
regulate chemical reactions in living organisms; work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction; lower activation energy by forming a complex with the substrate(s)
catalyst
substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction;
activation energy
the energy required to break existing bonds
enzyme-substrate complex
binding of an enzyme with a substrate (reactant)
active site
the site where the substrate(s) binds to the enzyme
induced fit
when the enzyme-substrate complex forms, there are typically shape changes in the enzyme and substrate(s)
cofactors
needed in order for an enzyme to function; can be organic or inorganic; organics(coenzymes)=ATP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2
inorganics=metal ions like Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, etc
inhibitors
reduce or eliminate catalytic activity
activators
allow or enhance catalytic activity
allosteric site
a receptor site on an enzyme where an inhibitor or activator can bind
feedback inhibition
where the last product in a metabolic pathway binds to an allosteric site of an enzyme in an early step of the pathway (often the first) and inhibits activity of the enzyme
irreversible inhibition
enzyme is permanently inactivated or destroyed; includes many drugs and toxins
reversible inhibition
if inhibitor is removed, the enzyme activity can be recovered
competitive inhibition
inhibitor is similar in structure to a substrate; competes with substrate for binding to the active site
noncompetitive inhibition
binds at allosteric site, alters enzyme shape to make active site unavailable