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34 Cards in this Set

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Life's large molecules are classified into four main categories:
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
organic molecule:
carbon-based molecule
inorganic molecule:
non-carbon-based molecule
hydrocarbon:
organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
functional group:
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
hydrophilic:
attracts water molecules
monomer:
small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
polymer:
long chain of small molecular units (monomers)
carbohydrate
organic compound made of sugar molecules
monosaccharide:
sugar containing one sugar unit
disaccharide:
sugar containing two monosaccharides
polysaccharide:
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
starch:
polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers
glycogen:
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
cellulose:
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
lipid:
one of a class of water-avoiding compounds
hydrophobic:
avoids water molecules
fat:
organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids
saturated fat:
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
unsaturated fat:
fat with less than the maximum number of hydrogens in one or more of its fatty acid chains
steroid:
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
cholesterol:
steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells
protein:
polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers
amino acid:
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
polypeptide:
chain of linked amino acids
denaturation:
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
activation energy:
minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction
catalyst:
agent that speeds up chemical reactions
enzyme:
specialized protein that catalyzes the chemical reactions of a cell
substrate:
specific reactant acted on by an enzyme
active site:
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits
hydrolysis reaction
When cells break bonds between monomers by adding water to them (the reverse of dehydration. Water(hydro-) is used to break down(-lysis) the polymer.
At room temp is a solid
saturated
at room temp liquid
unsaturated