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49 Cards in this Set

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What is taxonomy?
The science of classification and nomenclature used
How does the modern classification system work?
Group organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
What are the components and subdivisions of modern taxonomy
Kingdom
Phylum
Subphylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
How are organisms given a scientific name?
Genus Species
Homo Sapien
Felis domestica
What was the original method for dividing organisms?
Animals
Plants
What are the modern schemes for kingdoms?
(5) - Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
(3) - Monera, Plantae (including Fungi), and Animalia (including Protista)
How are viruses classified?
Viruses are not considered to be alive and therefore are not classified under any of the five kingdoms
What is the kingdom monera?
Prokaryotes
Lack nucleus or any membrane bound organelles
Single celled
Reproduce asexually
What is the kingdom Protista?
Primitive eukaryotic organisms
Plant and animal-like characteristics
Single celled or colonies with no specialized cells or tissues

Contains all simple eukaryotes that can not be classified as plants or animals

Euglena demonstrates motility of animals and photosynthetic capabilities of plants
What is the kingdom Fungi?
Resemble plants: multicellular, differentiated, non-motile

NOT PHOTOSYNTHETIC

Cell walls composed of chitin, not cellulose

Saprophytic (bread mold) or Parasitic (athlete's foot fungus)

Reproductive means varied and unique
What is the kingdom Plantae?
Multicellular organisms

exhibit differentiation of tissues

Non-motile

Photosynthetic

Many exhibit alternation of generations and distinct embryonic phase
What is the kingdom Animalia?
Multicellular

Generally motile

Hetertrophic

Differentiated tissues
What is cyanobacteria?
Monera Kingdom

AKA - Blue-Green Algae

Primarily fresh water, exist in marine

Possess cell wall, photosynthetic pigments, but no flagella, true nucleus, chloroplasts, or mitochondria

Can withstand extreme temperatures

Thought to be directly descended from first photosynthetic organisms
How are bacteria classified?
Cocci - Round
Bacilli - Rod
Spirilla - Spiral
Diplococci - Duplexes
Staphylococci - Clusters
Streptococci - Chains
What are the two major categories within Kingdom Protista?
Protozoa & Algae
What are protozoa?
Under Kingdom Protista

Single celled organisms that are heterotrophic (like little animals)

Rhizopods - amoebas, move with cellular extensions called pseudopods

Ciliophors - cilia that are used for feeding and locomotion
What are Algae?
Under Kingdom Protista

Primarily Photosynthetic

Phytoplankton are important for marine animals

Euglena is an algal protist because photosynthetic. Can also be heterotrophic and move about using flagellum

Blue, green, and red algae can be multicellular and sometimes placed in animal kingdom
What are the protists resembling fungi?
Slime Molds are often placed in Kingdom Fungi, however more directly related to protists

Arranged in coenocytic (many nuclei) mass of protoplasm

Undergoes unique life cycle containing animal-like and plant-like stages (fruiting bodies, unicellular flagellated spores)

Slime molds reproduce asexually by sporulation
What are some characteristics of Plant Kingdom with respect to differentiation of tissues?
To adapt to terrestrial life

Photosynthetic tissue for manufacture of carbohydrates

Supportive tissues provide mechanical support

Waxy cuticles on exposed light surface retards water loss

Cells are in direct contact with environment via air spaces and stomata, therefore, elaborate respiratory and excretory systems are unnecessary
What are some characteristics of Plant Kingdom with respect to reproduction?
Specialized sex organs in gametophyte include Archegonium which produces eggs

Sporophyte contains a sporangium which manufactures spores

Undergo alternation of generations with a sexual gametophyte (haploid) stage followed by an asexual sporophyte (diploid) stage.
What are bryophyta?
under Plant Kingdom

Simple plants with few specialized organs and tissues

Lack xylem

Never been successful terrestrial plants and must live in moist areas

Alternation of generations

Gametophyte is dominant, "main plant", larger, nutritionally independent

Sporophyte is short lived, small, attached to gametophyte, grows from the archegonium

Two types: Mosses and Liverworts
What are mosses?
Belong to division Bryophyta of Kingdom Plants

Primitive Bryophytes

Gametophyte and Sporophyte grow together

Gametophyte has a filamentous protonema (young moss plant) from which grows a vertical stem with radial leaves and a short sporophyte consisting of a foot stalk, and a capsule filled with spores

Sporophyte grows out of the archegonium at the tip of the gametophyte
What are liverworts?
Belong to division Bryophyta of Kingdom Plants

Flat, horizontal, leaf-like plants with differentiated dorsal and ventral surfaces

Lower surface contains rhizoids, middle surface for food storage, and upper surface for photosynthesis
What are tracheophyta?
under Plant Kingdom

Vascular plants (tracheophytes)

Complex, great degree of specialization

Contain phloem/xylem

Radial symmetry, great roots, grow to great heights

In contrast to Bryophytes, sporophyte is dominant

Gametophyte is short lived, and independent or dependent.

Four division of tracheophytes: Psilophyta, Lycophyta, Sphenophyta, Pterophyta
What are Psilophyta?
Tracheophytes

Most primitive of the tracheophytes

Contain rhizoids instead of roots

One vascular bundle in the leaves
What are Lycophyta?
Tracheophytes

Belong to ancient subdivision

Have roots

Non-woody

Contain microphyll leaves
What are sphenophyta?
Tracheophytes

Possess roots, microphyll leaves, hollow jointed stems

Whorls of leaves occur on each joint

Ex: Horse Tail
What are Pterophyta?
Tracheophytes

Largest division

Contain large leaves with many vascular bundles

Do not produce seeds

Short-lived gametophyte generation possesses heart-shaped leaves

Sperm are flagellated and require water or moisture to fertilize
What are Coniferophyta?
Kingdom Plant

Largest grouping of gymnosperms

cycads, pines, spruce, firs

CONifers have cones

Two types of cones:
Female cones produce megaspores
Male cones produce microspores

Gametophyte stage is short lived and microscopic

Male pollen can be blown with the wind and requires no water for transportation, officially terrestrial
What are gymnosperms?
Naked-seeded plants
What are anthrophyta?
Kingdom Plant

AKA: angiosperms

Includes flowering plants

Covered seeds

Most abundant of all plants

Anther of male stamen produces microspores, ovary of female pistil produces megaspores

Successful pollination results in the germination of pollen tubes which aid in fertilization of female eggs in the gametophyte

Embryo develops into a seed with the ovary and ovary becomes a fruit, the vehicle for dispersion

Subclasses of angiosperms:
Dicotyledons
Monocotyledons
What are dicotyledons?
Dicots

Have "net veined" leaves and vascular bundles about a ring within the central cylinder

Contain two cotyledons (seed leaves) within the seed

Flower parts in multiples of four or five

maple tree, apple tree, potatoes, carrots, goldenrods, buttercups
What are monocotyledons?
Monocots

Contain leaves with parallel veins, scattered vascular bundles, and seeds with single cotyledons (seed leaves)

Flower parts in multiples of three

Wheat, corn, rye, rice, sugar cane, pineapple, irises, bananas, orchids, palms
What is sessile?
Stationary plants that create currents to trap food
Do most animals have symmetry?
Yes, most are bilateral, although some are radially symmetrical
What are porifera?
Kingdom Animalia

AKA Sponges

Two layers of cells
pores
sessile
low degree of specialization
What are cnidarians?
Kingdom Animalia

Contain digestive sac that is sealed at one end

Two layers of cells (ectoderm and endoderm)

Specialized features: tentacles, stinging nets, nerve nets

hydra, jelly fish, sea anemone, coral
What are Platyhelminthes?
Kingdom Animalia

AKA flat worms

Ribbonlike, bilaterially symmetrical

Three layers of cells

No circulatory system

Eyes, anterior brain ganglion, pair of longitudinal nerve cords
What are nematoda?
Kingdom Animalia

AKA: Round worms

Long digestive tubes and an anus

No circulatory system

Posses nerve cords and anterior nerve ring

Hookworm, trichina, free-living soil nematodes
What are annelida?
Kingdom animalia

AKA: Segmented worms

Possess a true body cavity

Well defined systems: nervous, circulatory, excretory

earthworms, leeches
What are Mollusca?
Kingdom Animalia

Mollusks are softbodied and possess mantles which often secrete calcareous exoskeletons

Breathe by gills and contain chambered hearts, blood sinuses, pair of ventral nerve cords

clams, snails, squid
What are arthropoda?
Kingdom animalia

Jointed appendages, chitinous exoskeletons, open circulatory systems

Three most common classes:
Insects - 3 Pairs of legs, spiracles, tracheal tubes, outside aquatic environment
Arachnids - 4 Pairs of legs, "book lungs" scorpion/spider
Crustaceans - Segmented body with variable number of appendages, possess gills, lobster, crayfish, shrimp
What are echinoderms?
Kingdom animalia

Spiny, radially symmetrical, contain a water-vascular system, possess the capacity for regeneration of parts

Starfish, sea urchin
What are chordates?
Kingdom animalia

Characterized by stiff dorsal rod called notochord present at some stage of embryonic development

Gill slits and tail during embryonic development

Lancelets and tunicates are chordates but not vertebrates

Vertebrates have bone to protect nerve cord and brain

Divided into classes:
Fish, Amphibia, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals
What are fish?
Animalia, Chordates, Vertebrates

Two chambered heart, gills, external fertilization

Jawless fish - eel-like, notochord throughout life, no jaws, sucking mouth
Cartilaginous fish - jaws, teeth, shark
Bony Fish - most prevalent, scales,lack notochord in adult form,during development cartilage replaced by bone, trout, tuna
What are amphibia?
Animalia, Chordates

Larval stage - tadpole, in water, gills, tail, no legs
Adult stage - land, lungs, two pairs of legs, no tail, three chambered heart, no scales, external fertilization

frog, salamander, toad, newt
What are Reptiles?
Animalia, Chordates, Vertebrates

Terrestrial

Breathe air

Leathery eggs

utilize internal fertilization

Cold blooded (poikilothermic)

Scales

Three chambered heart

turtle, lizard, snake, crocodile
What are birds?
Animalia, Chordates, Vertebrates

Four-chambered hearts

Warmblooded

Eggs have shells

hen, eagle
What are mammals?
Animalia, Chordates, Vertebrates

Warm blooded, feed young with milk produced in mammary glands

Monotremes - leathery eggs, horny bills, numerous mammary glands with no nipples, duckbill platypus, anteater
Marsupials - Early development in uterus, later development in pouch on nipple, kangaroo, opossum
Placental mammals - embryo develops fully in uterus, attached to uterine wall for exchange of food, waste, gas