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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
First line of defense includes?
external, nonspecific defense mechanisms

-intact skin
-mucous memebranes and their secretions
Second line of defense includes?
internal, nonspecific defense mechanisms that indiscriminately attack any foreign matter that manages to penetrate the bodies external defenses
Third line of defense includes?
specific response tailored to a specific pathogen
What types of immune cells does the bone marrow produce?
lymphocytes, monocytes, leukocytes, B cells and T cells
Which organ secretes thymosin?
thymus
Which hormone stimulates pre-T cells to mature?
thymosin
What is the spleen used for?
storage center for blood and filters blood and lymph
Lysozyme
enzyme found in tears that can digest the peptidoglycan wall of many bacteria to prevent their entry into the body
What is released in response to a viral infection?
interons

(they stimulate the production of proteins that interfere with viral replication)
The inflammatory response happens as a result of?
cellular damage
What do injured cells release?
histamine
What does histamine do?
causes blood vessels to dilate, resulting in increased blood flow to the damage site
Why does fever often acompany the inflammatory response?
it can retard bacterial growth as some bacteria can only grow in a certain temperature range
Neutrophils and macrophages are both?
white blood cells

(seek out infectious agents by via phagocytosis)
B cells and T cells can do what specifically?
recognize and eliminate foreign matter
T cells response is called...?
cellular response

(because it involves the direct action of the T cells)
B cells response is called...?
humoral response
B cell/ humoral response includes...?
production of antibodies
Three important types of T cells are?
- Cytotoxic T cells

- Helper T cells

- Suppressor T cells
Cytotoxic T cells
kill cells that are infected by a pathogen that the cell recognizes
Helper T cells
coordinate the immune response of other cells against specific antigens through the secretion of signaling molecules called lymphokines
Interleukins
a type of signaling molecule
Suppressor T cells
regulate other T and B cells to decrease their activity
Signaling molecule that is involved in the coordination of the immune response
lymphokine
Maturation site of T cells...?
thymus
Antigens
entities that the immune system deems as foreign and mounts a response against them
How do B cells respond to antigens?
by making antibodies
Immunoglobulins
antibodies
Antibodies do what with antigens?
recognize and bind to them

-attracts other cells to phagocytose them or causes the antigens to agglutinate forming large insoluble complexes also removed by phagocytic cells
MCH I receptors are found on what types of cells?
all cells
MCH class II proteins are found on what types of cells?
macrophages, B cells and T cells
MHC stands for what?
Major Histocompatibility Complex

(found on the plasma membrane of cells)
MCH proteins are involved in what type of response?
T cell response
What do you call the antigen recognition proteins expressed by T cells?
T cell receptors
How are T cells able to recognize antigens?
ONLY when they are present on another cell (not freely floating around in solution)
When macrophages eat foreign bacteria they display parts of them on their membrane via MHC class II proteins, why?
For helper T cells to see
When Helper T cells recognize a class II protein on a macrophage, they?
Scream "Oh, yeah" and secrete interleukins
Interleukins do what?
activate cytotoxic T cells to kill infected cells and stimulate B cells to secrete antibodies
Plasma cells
specialized B cells that produce and secrete antibodies
Variable region
-varies from one antibody to another

-place where antigens bind
Epitope
specific part of the antigen that is recognized by the immune system
The sequence of variable regions determines what?
antibody specificity
Upon the first exposure to an antigen, the initial response of the immune system is called?
primary immune response
The second time the immune system encounters the antigen is called the?
secondary immune response which is quicker, stronger, longer and more effective
Immunological memory
the ability of the body to recognize an antigen to which it has previously been exposed
Memory cells are produced during which immune response?
Primary one, yet quickly proliferate if they are again exposed to the antigen that caused their creation
Immunity acquired through immunization is called?
artificially acquired
Active immunity
development of antibodies in response to exposure to an antigen
Vaccination
infection with a weakened or killed form of an antigen

(the immune system mounts an immune response against the antigen and produces memory cells
Passive immunity
transfer of pre-formed antibodies

(during pregnancy some antibodies are passed from the mother to the fetus via the placenta-- lasts only as long as the antibodies remain in the blood stream
The majority of the MHC class I molecules on the surface of a cell infected with a bacterium will have bound peptides that are derived from...?
bacterium
The cellular response is directed against?
pathogens that have entered body cells
The humoral response is directed against?
free floating antigens