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79 Cards in this Set

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What does the cardiovascular system do?
transports respiratory gases, nutrients and wastes to and from cells
What does the lymphatic system do?
collects excess body fluids and returns them to cardiovascular circulation
What are the three main components of the human cardiovascular system?
four-chambered heart, blood vessels and blood
Which side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs via the pulmonary arteries?
right side
Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the left side of the heart via which veins?
pulmonary veins
The aorta pumps blood into what, and then what?
arteries, arterioles then microscopic capillaries
Where does exchange of gases, nutrients an dcellular waste products occur?
Diffusion across capillary walls
Capillaries converge into what, and then what?
venules, veins... leading deoxygenated blood back to the right side of the heart
Blood returning from the lower body ad extremities enters the heart via what?
inferior vena cava
Deoxygenated blood from the upper head and neck region flows through what, into what?
jugular vein, superior vena cava
What arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart?
coronary arteries
Where do the arteries branch off?
aorta
What returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart?
coronary veins and the coronary sinus
What do you call the portal system found in the liver?
Heptatic portal system
What do you call the portal system found in the brain?
hypophyseal portal circulation
What is a portal system?
a place where blood travels through two capillary beds prior to returning to the heart
What is myocardial ischemia?
deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to the heart
What is myocardial infarction?
heart attack
What is the most common cause for decreased coronary heart flow?
atherosclerosis
Which ventrical is more muscular?
left
What is systemic circulation?
the circulation that goes through the body
What do the atrioventricular valves do?
prevent backflow of blood into the atria
What do you call the the valve on the right side of the heart?
Tricuspid valve
What do you call the valve on the left side of the heart?
mitral valve
Where are the semilunar valves located?
between the left ventricle and the aorta and between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
What two phases make up a heartbeat?
systole and diastole
What is systole?
the period during which the venticles contract
What is diastole?
the period of cardiac muscle relaxation during which blood drains into all four chambers
Cardiac output
the total volume of blood the left ventricle pumps out per minute

Cardiac output= heart rate (number of beats per minute) * stroke volume (volume of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per contraction)
What are the "lub dubs" you hear when you listen to your heart?
S1- the two atrioventricular valves close at the start of systole
S2- produced when the two semilunar valves lcose at the conclusion of systole
What does the sinoatrial (SA) node do?
regulates ordinary cardiac muscle contractions

(spreads impulses through both atria, stimulating htem to contract simultaneously)
What is the sinoatrial node?
a small mass of specialized tissue located in the wall of the right atrium
Where does the impulse from the SA node arrive?
at the atrioventricular (AV) node
What does the AV node do?
It conducts slowly, allowing enough time for atrial contraction and for the ventricles to fill with blood
After the AV node, what carries the impulse?
the bundle of His (AV bundle)- which branches into the right and left bundle branches
Where are the Purkinje fibers located?
in the walls of both ventricles
Via what, does the parasympathetic system innervate the heart?
vagus nerve (causing a decrease in heart rate)
Via what does the sympathetic system innervate the heart?
the cervical and upper thoracic ganglia causing an increase in the heart rate
How does the adrenal medulla exert hormonal control?
via epinephrine (adrenaline) secretion which causes and increase in heart rate
What is an electrocardiogram?
recording of heart currents through the skin
The electrical spokes of the EKG occur just before what?
a cardiac contractile event
When does the P wave occur?
immediately before the atria contract
What does the T wave represent?
ventricular repolarization
When does the QRS complex occur?
just before the ventricles contract
What are the three types of blood vessels?
arteries, veins and capillaries
Arteries
are thickly-walled, muscular, elastic vessels that transport oxygenated blood away form the heart, except for pulmonary arteries (transport deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs)
Describe veins
thinly-walled, inelastic vessels that conduct deoxygenated blod towards the hears (except for pulmonary veins)
What does much of the blood flow in the veins depend on?
the compression by skeletal muscles during movement
Why do larger veins in the legs have valves?
to prevent backflow
Capillaries
have very thin walls that are composed of a single later of endothelial cells across which respieratory gasses, nutrients, enzymes, hormones and wastes can readily diffuse
Which of the three types of blood vessels has teh smallest diameter?
capillaries
T/F

Red blood cells must often travel thorugh them single file.
T
What is pulmonary thromboemboli
block segments of the pulmonary arteries
Blood pressure
force per area that blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels
What is the instrument called that measures blood pressure?
sphygomanometer
As what is blood pressure expressed?
systolic and diastolic pressure
How much blood does the human body contain on average?
4-6 liters
Plasma
liquid portion of blood
What are the main cellular components of blood?
erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets
What is another name for a red blood cell?
erythrocyte
About how many molecules of hemoglobin does an erythrocyte contain?
250 million
From what are erythrocytes made?
stem cells in the bone marrow
What are some major components that erythrocytes lack?
cell nucleus, mitochondria, and membranous organelles
Since erythrocytes lack mitochondria they are what?
anaerobic an dget their ATP via glycolysis
About how long does a erythrocyte circulate in blood?
120 days
About how many erythrocytes exist per mm^3 of blood?
5 million
What is another name for leukocyte?
white blood cell
From where do leukocytes arise?
stem cells in the marrows of long bones
Are leukocytes or erythrocytes larger?
leukocytes
What is the average number of leukocytes per mm^3 of blood?
5,000-10,000
Does erythrocyte count in blood go up or down when the body is battling an infection?
it goes up
What are the three types of leukocytes?
granular, lymphocytes and monocytes
What do granular leukocytes do?
play key roles in inflammation, allergic reactions, pus formation, and destruction of invading bacteria and parasites
What do lymphocytes do?
play an important role in the immune response
Where are lymphochtes produced?
lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, appendix, thymus and bone marrow and are involved in the production of antibodies
What are the two types of lymphocytes?
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
What do monocytes do?
Phagocytize foreign matter and organisms liek bacteria
What is the origin of macrophages?
some monocytes migrate from the blood to tissue where theymature into stationary cells called macrophages

(macrophages have greater phagocytic capability than monocytes)
What are platelets and where are they made?
cell fragments, in the bone marrow