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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is respiration?
exchange of gases between an organism and its external environment
What does cellular repiration refer to?
the role that these gases play at the cellular level
a disease characterized by the destruction of alveolar walls

(mostly caused by cigarette smoke)
Through what does air enter the respiratory tract?
external nares
What does air pass through after passing through the pharynx?
Where does air travel after passing through the larynx?
into the cartilaginous trachea
What does the trachea divide into?
two bronchi
What lines both the trachea and the bronchi?
ciliated epithelial cells
What are the terminal branches of the bronchi called?
What is each bronchiole surrounded by?
clusters of small air sacs called alveoli
Where does gas exchange between the lungs and the circulatory system occur?
the walls of the alveoli
What is each alveolus coated with?
What does surfactant do?
lowers the surface tension of the alveoli and facilitates gas exchange across the membranes
process by which air in inhaled and exhaled
What is the purpose of ventilation?
take in oxygen from the atmosphere and eliminate carbon dioxide form the body
What is the ventilating mechanism dependent upon?
pressure changes in the thoracic cavity
What is the thoracic cavity?
body cavity that contains the heart and lungs
What separates the thoracic cavity from th eabdominal cavity?
muscle known as the diaphragm
What are the two membranes that surround the lungs?
visceral pleura and parietal pleura
What does the pressure differential between the intrapleural space and the lungs do?
keeps the lungs from collapsing
What does the diaphragm do during inhalation?
contracts and flattens
What do the external, intercostal muscles do during inhalation?
push the rib cage and chest wall up and out

(this allows the thoracic cavity to increase in volume)
What is negative pressure breathing?
air is drawn in my a vaccum when the intercostal muscles rise during inhalation
What type of process is exhalation?
a passive one
What do the internal intercostal muscles do during exhalation?
What prevents alaveolar collapse during exhalation?
surfactant which reduces the high surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli
What is pneumothorax?
a common result of a penetrating injury to the chest

- it is treated by inserting a needle and withdrawing air from the intrapleural space
Where are the neurons located that control respiration?
medulla oblongata
What can modify the neural signals (in reference to breathing) from the medulla oblongata?
chemoreceptors (found in the aorta)
What do the chemoreceptors respond to?
changes in pH and partial pressure of CO2 in the blood
What happens when the partial pressure of CO2 rises?
The medulla oblongata with increase the rate of breathing
What can consciously control breathing?
How does hyperventilation affect affect the partial pressure of CO2?
lowers the artial pressure of CO2 in blood below normal

(chemoreceptors sense this and send signals to the respiratory center to temporarily inhibit breathing)
What does a spirometer measure?
the amount of air normally present in the respiratory system and the rate at which ventilation occurs
What is the vital capacity?
the maximum amount of air that can be forcitly inhaled and exhaled form the lungs
What is the tidal capacity?
the amount of air normally inhaled and exhaled with each breath
What is the residual volume?
the air that always remains in the lungs, preventing the alveoli from collapsing
What is the expiratory reserve volume?
the volume of air that can still be forcibly exhaled following a normal exhalation
total lung capacity
is equal to the vital capacity plus the residual volume
What type of capillaries surround the alveoli?
pulmonary capillaries
In what type of state does blood enter the pulmonary capillaries?
deoxygenated state and so has a lower partial pressure of O2 than does inhaled air in the aveoli
What does O2 do when it diffuses down its gradient into the capillaries?
it binds with hemoglobin and returns to the heart via the pulmonary veins
Is the partial pressure of CO2 in the capillaries greater than that of the inhaled alveolar air?

CO2 diffuses from the capillaries into the alveoli, where it is subsequently released into the external environment during exhalation.
What type of measurement is used in respiratory physiology?
partial pressure rather than concentrations
At high altitudes what happens to the partial pressure of O2?
it declines
How is the body affected when partial pressure declines?
it gets more difficult to get sufficient oxygen to diffuse into the capillaries
How does the body combat a loss of O2 in the atmosphere?
-increasing the production of red blood cells to carry more oxygen (polycythemia)
-the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen decreases to facilitate unloading of oxygen in tissues
-greater vasclularization of the peripheral tissues
increasing the rate of ventilation