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100 Cards in this Set

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genome
基因组
eukaryote
cell or organism where the nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane
真核细胞
totipotent
cell with the potential to form all known cell types within an organism
全能
cell theory
theory that cells are basic unit of living organisms
细胞理论
optical microscope
microscope that uses light to form an image
光学显微镜
chloroplasts
叶绿体
algae
藻类
prokaryote
single-celled organism which has no nuclear membrane and the genetic material is not organized into chromosomes
原核生物
nucleoid
area in prokaryotes where the genetic material is localised
类核
plasmid
extra, circular strand of DNA, separate from the main chromosome, found in bacteria
质粒
mesosome
fold of the cell surface membrane that can form a vesicle
中膜体
flagellum
鞭毛
glycogen granules
糖原颗粒
protoplasm
the cytoplasm and the nucleus of a cell
原生质
ultrastructure
structure of a cell as revealed by the electron microscope
超微结构
chromatin
DNA bound to protein when a cell is not actively dividing
染色
nucleolus
an extremely dense area of the nucleus containing almost pure DNA and protein
核仁
mitochondrion
organelle which is the site of aerobic cellular respiration
线粒体
eubacteria
one of the most common types of bacteria
真细菌
cristae
centrioles
structures in an animal cell that are involved in spindle formation during cell division
中心粒
vacuole
membrane-lined enclosure in a cell, permanent feature in plant cells, formed when needed in animal cells
液泡
spindle
set of microtubules formed during mitosis that move the chromatids to the opposite ends of the cell
纺锤体
chromatids
染色单体
mitosis
cell division of the body cells that results in two identical daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes as the original cell
有丝分裂
microtubule
tiny protein tubes that make up part of the cytoskeleton
微管
cytoskeleton
3D web-like structure that fills the cytoplasm, made up of microfilaments and microtubules
细胞骨架
microfilament
protein fibres that make up part of the cytoskeleton
微丝
myosin
the contractile proteins in muscle
肌球蛋白
tubulin
微管蛋白
daughter cells
子细胞
contractile vacuole
vacuole found in simple animals that forms or empties to control the water content of the cytoplasm
收缩液泡
endoplasmic reticulum(ER)
a 3D network of membrane-bound cavities(腔体) spreading through the cytoplasm, plays a major role in transport within the cell
内质网
rough endoplasmic reticulum(RER)
endoplasmic reticulum covered in ribosomes involved in synthesis and transport of proteins
粗面内质网
cisternae
囊泡
smooth endoplasmic reticulum(SER)
endoplasmic reticulum without ribosomes, involved in the synthesis and transport of lipids
滑面内质网
steroid
类固醇
Golgi body
stacks of parallel, flattened membrane pockets loosely linked to the RER and invoved in the secretion of materials from the cell
高尔基体
lysosome
organelle containing lysozymes
溶酶体
apoptosis
programmed cell death, also known as cell suicide
细胞凋亡
excessive rupturing of lysosomes
溶酶体过度破裂
autoimmune disease
自身免疫性疾病
rheumatoid arthritis
类风湿关节炎
cartilage tissue
软骨组织
osteoporosis
骨质疏松症
retinitis pigmentosa
视网膜色素变性
tissue
specilised cells organized into a group to carry out a particular function
组织
organ
group of tissues grouped into a structure to carry out a particular function
器官
epithelial tissues
tissues which line the surfaces inside and outside of the body
上皮组织
system
group of organs working together to carry out a particular function
系统
epithelial tissues
组织上皮
squamous epithelium
鳞状上皮
cuboidal cells
立方上皮细胞
columnar cells
柱状细胞
ciliated epithelia
纤毛上皮细胞
compound epithelia
复合上皮细胞
cartilage tissue
软骨组织
glandular tissue
腺体组织
vascular tissue
血管组织
mesophyll tissue
叶肉组织
palisade mesophyll
叶肉栅栏
upper epidermis
上表皮
xylem vessel
木质部导管
phloem tissue
韧皮部组织
lower epidermis
下表皮
spongy mesophyll
海绵叶肉
asexual reproduction
the production of genetically identical offspring from a single parent cell or organism
无性繁殖
meiosis
cell division which results in the production of four daughter cells each with half of the chromosome number of the original cell
减数分裂
histone
positively charged protein molecule around which DNA molecules coil
组蛋白
cell cycle
sequence of events making up cell division
细胞周期
interphase
period of non-division in the cell cycle
中间步骤
cyclin
small protein involved in control of the cell cycle
细胞周期蛋白质
cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)
Enzymes involved in the control of the cell cycle
细胞周期蛋白依赖性激酶(激酶)
cyclin/CDK complex
cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) bound to the protein cyclin in a complex which controls the cell cycle through phosphorylation of proteins
细胞周期蛋白/ CDK复合物
prophase
second stage of mitosis where the chromosomes coil and condense, when they can take up stain and become visible as two chromatids(染色单体)
前期
metaphase
third stage of mitosis where chromatids line up across the equator of the cell
中期
anaphase
fourth stage of mitosis where chromatids are pulled towards the poles of the cell
后期
telophase
the final stages of mitosis where the chromatids reach the poles of the cells and become chromosomes, the nuclear membrane reforms and the cytoplasm divides.
末期
resting phase
more appropriately called interphase, the stage in cell division when the cell assimilates(同化) new materials and the chromosomes cannot be seen.
休息期
chromatid
one of the two strands formed when a chromosome replicates in cell division
染色单体
centromere
the region where the chromatids are joined together in pairs before seperating during cell division
着丝点
metaphase plate/equator
central region of spindle formed in mitosis
中期板
clone
genetically identical individuals that result from asexual reproduction
克隆
fission
in biology, the simple method of asexual reproduction which involves an organism splitting in two, seen in bacteria and protoctists
裂变
sporulation
asexual reproduction that involves the formation of spores
孢变
spore
structure produced by asexual reproduction often as a way of surviving adverse conditions. develops into a new individual genetically identical to parent.
孢子
fragmentation
reproduction of an entire individual from a body fragment
分裂
regeneration
asexual reproduction of a body part to replace one which has been lost.
再生
budding
form of asexual reproduction involving an outgrowth from the parent plant which develops into a smaller, genetically identical individual.
出芽
hydra
水螅
vegetative propagation
production of new plants by asexual reproduction
植物无性繁殖
perennating organ
organ involved in asexual reproduction which contains stored food to survive dormant period,eg bulb, corm
储藏食物的植物器官
parthenogenesis
reproduction in which an ovum or ovule develops and forms a new organism without fusing with a male gamete
单性繁殖
vertebrates
脊椎动物
assimilation
the taking-in of new materials by cells after cell division
消化吸收
dry mass
the mass of the body of an organism with all the water removed
干质量
continuous growth
growth which occurs continuously, although at different rates, throughout life at least until maturity is reached
持续生长
moult
in the context of insect growth: to shed an outer covering in order to grow
蜕皮
discontinuous growth
growth which takes place in a series of steps
不持续生长
senescence
old age
衰老