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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Systemic Anatomy
study of body by systems, used most often by introductory textbooks
Regional Anatomy
study of organization of the body by areas, in which all systems are studied simultaneously
Surface Anatomy
study of external features such as bony projections, which serve as landmarks to locate deeper structures
Anatomical Imaging
creates pictures of internal structures using x-rays, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and other technologies
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things
Human physiology
study of a specific organism, the human
Cellular physiology
study of the physiology of a cell
Chemical level of structure
the interactions between atoms and their combinations into molecules
Basic living unit of all plants and animals
group of cells with similar structure and functions plus the extracellular substances located between them
two or more tissue types that together perform one or more common functions
Organ system
group of organs classified as a unit because of a common function or set of functions
any living thing considered as a whole, whether composed of one cell(bacterium), or trillions of cells(human)
Negative-feedback Mechanism
Maintain homeostasis; Any deviation from a normal value is made smaller or is resisted, not preventing variation, but maintains variation within a normal range
Anatomical position
person standing erect with feet forward, arms hanging to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward
Anatomical Position: Superior
above, or closer to the head; used in comparison of body part locations
Anatomical Position: Inferior
below, or closer to the feet
Anatomical Position: Anterior
towards the front, or the front itself
Anatomical Position: Posterior
back or towards the back
Planes: Sagittal
vertical plane through the body, separating right from left
Plane: Midsagittal
divides sagittal plane into two equal halves
Plane: transverse (or) horizontal
plane running parallel to the ground and divides body into superior and inferior parts
Plane: frontal (or) coronal
runs vertically from left to right, divides body into posterior and anterior
Plane: Longitudinal
Cuts through long axis of an organ
Plane: cross (or) transverse section
cut parallel to ground in an organ
Plane: Oblique section
Cut into an organ at anything other than a right angle across the long axis (diagonal cut)
Body Region: Arm
region from shoulder to elbow
Body Region: forearm
region from elbow to wrist
Body Region: thigh
region from hip to knee
Body Region: leg
from knee to ankle
Body Region: thorax
Body Region: pelvis
associated with hips; pelvic girdle area
Thoracic Cavity
surrounded by rib cage, separated from abdomen by muscular diaphragm
a partition dividing the thoracic cavity into two parts; contains heart, thymus gland, trachea, esophagus, and other structures
Abdominal Cavity
bounded by abdominal muscles and contains stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys
Pelvic Cavity
small space enclosed by bones of pelvis and contains urinary bladder, part of the large intestine, and internal reproductive organs
Serous membranes
a thin sheet consisting of epithelium and connective tissue that lines cavities not opening to the outside of the body; secretes serous fluids
Visceral serous membrane
membrane in contact with the organ
Parietal Serous Membrane
part of serous membrane not in contact with organ; exterior of serous-fluid-filled serous membrane
Pericardial Membrane
serous membrane surrounding heart
Pleural cavity
cavity containing lungs within thoracic cavity; between visceral and parietal pleura and is filled with pleural fluids
double-layered membrane connecting the visceral peritoneum of many abdominopelvic organs to the parietal peritoneum
abdominopelvic organs without mesentery
Positive-feedback responses
when a deviation from a normal value occurs, the response of the system is to made the deviation even greater; e.g. contractions when giving birth
Body Region: abdomen
between chest and hips
existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body
small structure contained with a cell that performs one or more specific functions; e.g. nucleus
Peritoneal Cavity
abdominopelvic cavity that is serous membrane-lined
Pericardial Cavity
space surrounding heart; located between visceral and parietal pericardia and containing pericardial fluid