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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prokaryotic cells definition
Cell without a nucleus or membranous organelles.
"pro" means "before"
"karyote" means "nucleus"
Eukaryotic cells definition
Cell with a nucleus and the other membranous organelles.
"Eu" means "true"
"karyote" means "nucleus"
Prokaryotic Characteristics
1. No nucleous
2. has DNA in the nucleid
3. is found in all bacteria
4. many have flagella (for movement)
5. sometimes its in capsule
Eukaryotic Characteristics
1. Has a nucleus
2. Have organelles
what are organelles
small membranous bodies with an specific function and structure
Prokaryotic main parts
1. cell wall
2. plasma membrane
3. cytoplasm
Plasma membrane
1. Boundary of the cell made of phospholipids (bilayer)
2. Function: To regulate what goes into and out of the cell
1. Control-center of the cell
2. Holds the DNA
3. Makes sure the cell performs the function it has
Where is the DNA?
Enclosed in the nucleus. Protected by a nuclear envelope (which is a membrane)
Nuclear Pore
1. Outside the nucleus
2. Region where the DNA/nucleus SENDS MESSAGES to the cells
1. Located in the nucleus.
2. It is made up of DNA and proteins.
Darken body inside the nucleus.

(Plural: Nucleoli)
Factory to make proteins.

Structure: Made of RNA & Proteins

1. FREE floating ribosomes
(within the cytoplasm)
Make proteins for INSIDE the cell

2. ATTACHED ribosomes:
attached to the Rough ER.
Make proteins to be exported OUTSIDE the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Neckline Membrane Structure
Rough ER
Structure: Dotted w/ Ribosomes

Function: Make the proteins to be exported outside the cell
i.e.: Pancreas
Smooth ER
Neckline Membrane structure. Makes lipids (not protein, not ribosomes)

Function: Detoxification

i.e.: Liver
Golgi Apparatus
"stacked pancake"
Function: "packaging facility". Processing, packaging & distributing proteins and lipids.
Vacuole & Vesicle
Membranous sac
Membrane bound organelle. Has 40 different digestive enzymes

Function: to digest anything in order to make everything new. Breaks down Mitochondria.
Tay-Sachs disease
happens when Lysosome is missing Lipid-digestive enzyme, causing lipid to build up in brain.
Sausage shape structure. Made of bilayer membrane. Present in both Plant & animal cells. Outer membrane has Cristae (finger-like formations)

Function: The more finger-like formations, the more surface area, and more chances of CELLULAR RESPIRATION --needed for energy

Mitochondria MAKES ATP

Mitochondria DNA only comes from maternal side
Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (Energy Currency)
1. Mechanical work
2. Transport work
3. Chemical work
Present in plants.

Energy generating organelle: takes sun energy and converts it to chemical energy (sugar)
Made of Proteins.

Skeleton system of the cell.
Three types:
1. Microtubules
2. Microfilaments
3. Intermediate Filaments
Types of Cytoskeleton (3)
1. Microtubules (Tubulin Protein)
2. Microfilaments (Actin Protein)
3. Intermediate Filaments (several proteins)
Present only in animal cells
Two at 90 degrees from each other

In charge of cell division
Cell walls
Present only in plant cells.
Made of cellulose. Rigid structure.
Central Vacuole Large
Only in plant cells. Big area.
Main function is storage (water, nutrients, etc)
Structures unique to plant cells...
1. Large central vacuole
2. cell walls
3. chloroplast
Structures unique to animal cells...
1. Small vacuoles
2. centriole
movement of molecules from
HIGH concentration (HYPERtonic)
LOW Concentration (HYPOtonic)

i.e.: Broken bottle of perfume
Movement of WATER across a semipermeable membrane
Which Diffusion is fastest?
a. through a semisolid
b. through a liquid
c. through air
through air, then
liquid, then
Tonicity is...
The ability of a solution to cause a cell to GAIN OR LOSE WATER
Tonicity depends on....
its concentration of solutes and solvents outside the cell compared to inside the cell.
Isotonic solution
same concentration of solute as the cell.

No net movement of water
Hypertonic solution
higher solute (lower water) than the cell.

Water moves out of the cell into the solution
Hypotonic solution
has a lower solute (higher water) concentration than the cell.

Water moves from the solution into the cell.
aka: Fluid Mosaic
Plasma Membrane
What does the Plasma membrane contain?
1. Mainly Phospholipid bilayer
2. Cholesterol to give flexibility, fluidity
3. Peripheral & Integral Proteins
4. Carbohydrates
has transport proteins, aka transmembrane proteins
Plasma membrane
Transmembrane proteins
help hydrophillic molecules go across membrane
Passive Transport
Process of diffusion that requires NO ENERGY.
i.e.: breathing, lungs
Types of Tonicity
1. Isotonic
2. Hypertonic
3. Hypotonic
Active Transport
Diffusion from High to low concentration that uses energy (ATP)
Normal salt solution in our cell is...
0.8% saline
What happens to animal cells in a Hypotonic solution
Cell fills to bursting due to gain of water
What happens to plant cells in a Hypotonic solution
central vacuole exerts turgor pressure, and chloroplasts are seen AGAINST the cell wall.
What happens to animal cells in a Hypertonic solution
cell shrivels due to loss of water
What happens to plant cells in a Hypertonic solution
central vacuole loses water, and the chloroplasts are seen AWAY from the cell wall
What happens to animal cells in a Isotonic solution
has normal appearance, no net gain or loss of water
What happens to plant cells in a Isotonic solution
normal appearance, no net gain or loss of water
to use energy, ATP breaks down into...
Enzymes are...
1. very specific
2. biological catalyst: speed up metabolic reactions by lowering barriers.
3. Mainly proteins
1 large molecule broken down into 2 small molecules is called:
Energy of Activation
Energy that must be added to cause molecules to react with one another.
Is energy of activation higher or lower in the presence of an enzyme
Lower. Enzyme speeds up the reaction.
How does enzyme lower the energy of activation?
by binding to substrate (reactant)
Active Site
Part of the enzyme that comes in contact with the substrate
Induced Fit
Enzyme moves around to embrace the substrate.
Factors that affect enzyme activity
1. Temperature
2. Substrate concentration
3. pH
is the Enzyme used up in the reaction?
NEVER. It's recycled.
What happens with the enzyme when the temperature is increased
the enzyme activity increases
Enzyme Inhibitors (types)
1. Competitive Inhibition
2. Non-Competitive Inhibition
Competitive Inhibition
The substrate competes for the active site.
i.e: CO competes w/ CO2
Non-Competitive Inhibition
Substrate of different shape, and different structure attaches to a site other than the active site
Allosteric Regulations
1. Activation (Active form)
2. Inhibition (Inactive form)

Both, activator & inhibitor attach to a site other than the active site
Allosteric Activation
Stabilized by an activator
Allosteric Inhibition (Inactive)
Stabilized by an inhibitor.
Feedback Inhibition
Mechanism by which an enzyme is rendered inactive by combining with the product of an enzymatic reaction or pathway.
Coenzymes & Cofactors
Two types of molecules that help in the enzymatic reaction
1. Coenzymes (organic)
2. cofactors (inorganic)
Losing electrons or H ions
LO: Lose/Oxigen
Adding electrons or H ions
RA: Reduction/Add