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69 Cards in this Set

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Metabolic Pathways
+ Series of chemical reactions
+ Regulated by enzymes
Metabolism
The sum of all chemical reactions within an organism
Metabolism evolved incermentally (in layers)
Simple reactions
Simple + simple reactions
A-B-C-D-E
Linear
F
I G
H
Cyclic
K J

N M L
Branching
A->B->C->D
E E E
1 2 3
Functional
Enzymes are..
Specific
Examples of Biological Work
Movement, respiration, circulation.
Biological work requires...
Energy
Organisms carry out conversions between _____ & _____ energy.
Potential and Kinetic
Potential Energy
Stored, in chemical bonds
Kinetic Energy
Motion
ATP is the ______ of cells
Energy Currency
Adenine Triphosphate
ATP
Cells _____ package chemical energy within ATP
Temporary
ATP has Three main Parts:
Sugar

Nitorgenous Base (adenine)

3 Phosphate groups
ATP is produced during _______.
Cellular Respiration
3 main Stages of Cellular Respiration
+Glycosis

+ Kreb's Cycle

+ Electron Transport
Tricarboxylic Acid
Citric acid cycle
Krebs Cycle
All the same thing.
______ is required to preform other chemical reactions
Energy Transfer
ATP Donate (_____), energy through the transfer of a phosphate grpup.
Releases
Phosphorylation
Transfer of phosphate group to an organic molecule. (regulation)
Cells maintain a ____ ratio of ATP to ADP
High
Ratio of ATP to ADP
10:1
ATP Can not be _______.
Stockpiled
Cells do not store ___.
ATP
Enzymes are chemical ________.
Regulators
Globular Protein
Enzymes
Catalyst
Enzymes that speed up chemical reactions but are not used up themselves.
Catalyst _____ activation energy.
Lowers
An enzyme operates on a _______ by forming new chemical bonds.
Substrate
Enzymes are ______ regulators.
Chemical
Enzymes allow for ______ control
Chemical
" turns biochemical pathways on and off "
Phosphorylation
Substrat complex requires ______.
Enzyme.
Active Site
Three dimensional region where substrate binds.
An _______ must have an Active Site.
Enzyme.
Induced Fit Theory.
+Active site is not rigid

+Changes shape when
substrate binds

+ Product is then released
Nomenclature "ase" =
Enzyme
Oxidoreductase
Carryout oxidation reduction reactions.
Hydrolase
Hydrolysis of chemical bonds (protein)
Lipase
Work on lipids
Ligase
Put molecules together (DNA)
Most Enzymes require ______.
Cofactors.
Inorganic cofactors include..
metals such as Mg,Zn & Cu.
Organic cofactors are...
not protein, NADH & FADH2
Enzymes require _____ conditions
optimal
Temperature affects _______ activity.
Enzymes
High Temperature _______ protein.
Denatures
PH affects ______ activity.
enzyme
Extremes in PH ______ protein.
Denatures
Enzymes can be _______ by certain chemical reagents.
Inhibited.
Competitive inhibition
Molecule is structurally similar to the substrate.
______ binds to active site.
enzymes
Cells convert ______ ______ to a usuable form of ATP
nutrient molecules
Site of oxidative phosphorylation; where cell makes most of its ATP
Mitochondria
Anabolism
Simpler substances are combined to form more complex substances.
Catabolism
Complex substances broken down to form simpler substances.
Cells use _____ reactions to extract energy from nutrients.
Redox
Oxidation - Reduction Reactions
The transfer of electrons from one molecule to another.
Aerobic respiration
Cells require oxygen to complete chemical reactions.
Anaerobic respiration
Cells do not require oxygen to complete chemical reactions
Aerobic Respiration has 4 stages...
1 ) Glycosis (primitive)

2) Formation of Acetyl CoA

3) Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb's)

4) Electron Transport
Glycosis
Ten step process
Glycosis in an anerobic organism
Pyruvate --> ethnoal (yeast)
Formation of Acetyl CoA
Cells convert pyruvate into acetyl CoA

Produces small amount of NADH
Kreb's Cycle
Acetly CoA enters

occurs in mitochondria
Electron Transport
Aslo called chemiosmosis