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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the scientific study of life
biology
the four molecules of life
carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, protiens
life is capable of doing what 3 things?
metabolism, reproduction, evolution
maintenance of a relatively stable internal condition
homeostasis
the word for change over time
evolution
the similarity of forelimb bones shows they have been modified from ____
common ancestors
variations among individuals will tell how they will __ and __
reproduce and survive
___ is the process that determines which species with survive and reproduce
natural selection
what is the age of the earth
4 billion years
__ evolution preceded biological evolution
chemical
the basic unit of life
cells
__-karyotic were teh first type of cell
prokaryotic
the process that converts solar energy to chemical energy
photosynthesis
early photosynthetic cells were similar to what present-day cells
bacteria
cells with internal compartments are __-karyotic
eukaryotic
multicellularity allows cells to
stick together after then divide and act together in a coordinated manner
__ permits the combining of genes from two different cells or organisms
sexual recombination
name levels of organization of life from molecules to biosphere
molecules, cells, disorganise, organ systems, organisms, population, community, biosphere
organisms that cannot interbreed are called different ___
species
an educated guess is called a
hypothesis
what does a "control" do in an experiment
standard for companies
the scientific method is based on ___
facts
__ the basic unit of matter
atom
what are the 3 subatomic particles and their charges
proton, neutron, electron
an ___ has only one type of atom
element
isotopes have more of which subatomic particale
neutron
2 or more atoms linked by chemical bonds
molecules
stable molecules have a max of ___ of electrons in teh outermost shell
8 (non reactive and complete)
a __ links two atoms in a molecule
chemical bond
_ bonds SHARE two electron
covalent bonds
a molecule of 2 different atoms is called a
compound
carbon forms how many bonds with other atoms
4
the electrons in water are ___ shared makeing water a ___, or two-ended molecule
unequally, polar molecule
the loss/gain of electron in an atom forms an
ion
a +2 means teh that teh atom has __ electron
loss
bonds formed by electrical attraction between 2 ions with opposite charges
ionic bonds
water loving
hydrophilic
water hating
hydrophobic
teh capacity to do work
energy
metabolic reactions release __ energy measure in calories
chemical
ice is __ less dense than liquid water so it __
less, floats
there are _ amounts of heat exchange needed for water to change states
large
__ explains the tendency of water molecules to stick together
cohesion
___ release H while __ accepts
acid and base
a pH value below __ if considered acidic
7
body fluids do not change pH very much because of _ actions
buffer
NH3 and COOH are called __ group
functional
organic molecules have an abundance of what element
carbon
__ reactions form polymers from monomers
condensation
__ reactions form monomers from polymers
hydrolysis
the molecule either removed or added in condensation and hydrolysis reactions
H2O
list some functions of proteins
structural support
protection
regulation
catalysis
movement
defense
how many R groups are available in natural amino acids
20
a __ linkage joins one amino acids to another
peptide
the sequence of amino acids determines the __ structure of proteins
primary
a coil, or __ helix is secondary structure, in which __ bonds form between amino acid side chain
alpha, hydrogen
folding of teh helix, called __ structure, makes protien more compact
secondary
hemoglobin's 4 cahins interact to form __ stricture
quanternary
loss of protiens 3-D shape is called __
denaturation
which level of protiens structure is not lost in denatureation
primary
__ serves as teh cell's main molecule
carbohydrates
simple sugar = __-saccaride __ = __-mer
monosaccarides and monomers
give 3 examples of hexoses
alpha mannose, alpha-galactose, fructose
give 3 examples of pentose
ribose and deoxyribose
glucose + furctose =
sucrose ( table sugar)
__ + __ = maltose
glucose and glucose
plants store energy as teh polysaccaride called
starch
animals store energy as teh polysaccaride called
glycogen
name some characteristics of polysaccarides
fiers
layered
form long chains
branching
lipids are defined by their insolubility in _
water
name two kinds of triglycerides
fats and oils
_ are solid at room temperature while __ are liquid
fats, oils
name two kinds of fatty acids
saturated and unsaturated
unsaturated fatty acids have more __ bonds, thus packing less closely
double bonds
fats and oils are used to __ energy for later use
store
a bi layer of __ forms most cell membranes
phospholipids
steroids are lipids with __ rings in the structure
4
name some well-known steroids
cholesterol, Vitamin D2, testosterone, cortisol
nucleic acids store
information
name two main kinds of nucleic acids
RNA and DNA
the sugars in nucleotides are pentoses with how many carbons
5
what are the 3 parts of a nucleotide
base (pyrimidines or purines), phosphate , sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
a polymer of nucleotides is a called a
polynucleotides
name the four nitrogenous bases in DNA
cytosine (c), thymine (T), adenine (A), guanine (G)
how do The bases pair up?
A-T and C-G
RNA is __ stranded
DNA is __ stranded
single
double
the information in DNA is encoded in the _ of the basses
sequences
what are the 3 statements of cell theory
cells are the fundamental unit of life
all organisms are composed of cells
all cells come from preexisting cells
what limits cell size
the surface area to volume ratio
what cell feature separates inside from outside
plasma membrane
what is the arrangement of hydrophobic heads and hydrophobic tails in the cell membrane
head out tails in
prevents some substances from crossing while allowing others
selectively permeable barrier
prokaryotes have no____
compartments
what is the difference between nucleoids and nucleus
nucleoids have not membranes
holds DNA
nucleus
power plant of the cell; where energy stored in the bonds or carbohydrates is converted to a form of energy call ATP
mitochondria
supports the cell and is involved in movements of teh cell
cytoskeleton
protein synthesis
ER with ribosomes
proteins are packed and sent to appropriate locations
Golgi apparatus
supports the PLANT cell
cell wall
photosynthesis
choloplast
where is teh location and what teh function of teh nucleolus
holds RNA and it is located in the nucleus
make of DNA, rod like
chromosomes
ribosomes may lie free in cytoplasm or attached to the
ER
what happens on ribosomes
protien synthesis
name 2 components of Endomembrane system
ER and Golgi Apparatus
why is rough ER called "rough"
because of teh ribosomes on it
what are some functions of SER
site for lipid synthesis and chemical modification for proteins
whar does Golgi do to proteins
modifies, packages, sorts (finishing touches)
describs teh apperaence of golgi
varies, but always have flattened membraneous sacs called cisternae
lysosomes contain ___ ___ that digest itens within them
digestive enzymes
define autophagy
organelles are engulged by lysosomes and hyrolyzed to monomers (cellular suicide)
mitochondria are places for __ transformations
energy
define cellular respiration
the production of ATP in teh mitochondria using feul molucules and molecular O2
define plastids
a class of organelles produced only in plants and some protists
chloroplast
makes chemical energy (photosynthesis)
list dome cytoskeleton functions
maintain cell shape, cellular movement, supports format of protiens, moves things in teh cell
name 2 types of cytoskeleton components
microfiliments, intermediate filaments and micro tubules
fluid mosaic model could be visualized as : __ "icebergs" floating in a sea of __
protiens, lipids
__ form a bilayer that constiutes most of teh bulk of a membrane
phospholipids
specialized functiond in the membrane are done by
protiens
name 2 functions of proteins in membrane
recieving chemical signals from teh enviroment and moving materials through teh membrane
what is the main function of carbohydrates in membranes
recognition sites for other cells and molecules
what re 3 types of cell junctions
tight, desmosomes, gap
what is the function of tight junctions
seal ad prevent leakes
what is teh function of desmosomes?
tightly link cells but allow materials to move in them
what is the function of gap junctions
lets cells communicate
define selectively permeable
the ability to allow some substances, but not others, to pass throught the membrane
what is the difference between passive and active transport
passive requires not energy and active does
diffuseion rates are slower when: molecules are ___, temperature is __ and the gradient is __
larger, lower and, smaller
small molecules move through a membrane by a process known as
simple diffusion
the movement of water through a membrane is specifically called
osmosis
define isotonic
equal solute concentration
define hypertonis
high solute concentration
define hypotonic
lower solute concentrations
give results to RBC in each type of solution (iso, hyper, hyps)
ok, burst, shrink
diffusion of substances many be "facilitated" by
channel protiens
glucose transport is an example of facilitates diffusion by __
carrier protiens
movement of substances from low to high concentrations is called __
active transport
define symport
mve 2 solutes in the same direction`
WBC's eat bacteia by a process known as
phagocytosis type of endocytosis
enzymer secretion from intestinal lining is an example
exocytosis
define signal transduction pathway
teh entire signaling process (4 steps)
hormones travel via the __ in teh body
blood stream
all cells must have a __ to recieve signlas
receptors
what are teh sequence steps in signaling
signal, bind to the receptor, transduction( amplification), effect
cells will or will not respond to a signal depending on teh presence or absence of a proper __
receptor
nonpolar (setroid) molecule __ pass through membrance to cytoplasmic recptor
will
acetylcholine binds to a channel protien to allow what to happen
open th channel and let sloute through
homeostasis
steady state
isomer
same number of atoms, different arrangement
hypertonic
high solute
what is the main function of carbohydrates in membranes
recognition sites for other cells and molecules
what re 3 types of cell junctions
tight, desmosomes, gap
what is the function of tight junctions
seal ad prevent leakes
what is teh function of desmosomes?
tightly link cells but allow materials to move in them
what is the function of gap junctions
lets cells communicate
define selectively permeable
the ability to allow some substances, but not others, to pass throught the membrane
what is the difference between passive and active transport
passive requires not energy and active does
diffuseion rates are slower when: molecules are ___, temperature is __ and the gradient is __
larger, lower and, smaller
small molecules move through a membrane by a process known as
simple diffusion
the movement of water through a membrane is specifically called
osmosis
define isotonic
equal solute concentration
define hypertonis
high solute concentration
define hypotonic
lower solute concentrations
give results to RBC in each type of solution (iso, hyper, hyps)
ok, burst, shrink
diffusion of substances many be "facilitated" by
channel protiens
glycogen
animal starch
organelles
cellular campartments
fluid mosaic
design of teh cell membrane
vesicles
storage compartments in cells
glycolipid
carbo stuck on a lipid
paracrine
hormones acts locally