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15 Cards in this Set

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Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a given gene
homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a given gene
alleles
Alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
genotype
The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism
phenotype
The physical and physiological traits of an organism, that are determined by its genetic makeup.
dominant allele
An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote.
recessive allele
An allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote.
Punnett square
A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization in genetic crosses.
gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
haploid cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
diploid cell
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
Gamete
A cell involved in sexual reproduction and contains only one copy of each chromosome. In mammals it refers to both egg and sperm cells.
Characteristics of DNA
double helix
bonded by Hydrogen bonds
5' to 3'
Soluble in H20
Precipates in Ethanol
Denatures @ high temperatures
4 bases
Adenine (red)
Guanine(yellow)
Thymine (green)
Cytosine (uricil) (blue)
Used for genetic sequencing base by base analysis
Fragment analysis - (genotyping)
Exons make genes
Introns (in between) are removed
PCR
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Electrophoresis
separate molecules by size charge and shape.