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68 Cards in this Set

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3 ways to study behavior
1)physiological
2)developmental
3)functional (adaptive value)
How does natural selection shape behavior?
physical and behavioral traits often go hand in hand

ex: dog's nose
genetic drift
random change in gene frequency
(large pop. to small)
enery intake vs. cost
ex: crabs and mussels

try to get most benefit for least cost
Why have a territory?
have own exclusive resources
problem with altruism
reciprocity (offer protection in return for protectio) and kin selection (protect own genetics)
Hamilton's Rule
rb>c
r=related
b=benefit
c=cost
population
group of same species in same time @ same place
3 characteristics of population
1) range
2) spacing
3) size
genetic bottleneck
small population=low genetic diversity
3 kinds of population spacing
1)even
2)clumped (herds-more beneficial)
3)random
4 factors affectiong population growth rates
1)sex ration
2)generation time
3)age structure
4)birth/death rates

ex: Sweden vs. Kenya
fitness
passing on genes to next generation
semelparity
reproductive even like big bang (one)
iteroparity
reproductive event - bet hedging (spread out-many)
r formula
r=(b-d)+(i-e)

b=birth
d=death
i=immigration
e=emmigration
Simplest model of population groth
dn/dt=rN

N=population size
dn=change in population size
dt=change in time
r=rate of increase
Logistic Growth Equation
dn/dt=rN((k-n)/k)
niche
sum total of all the ways an organism uses it's environment

ex: barnacles
community
interacting organisms
Individualistic concept of communities
species present had to hrive n climate, whoever gets there first & not based on interaction
(H.A. Gleason)
species redundancy
species job in community could be replaced by another species
Holistic concept of communities
interactions crucial todeveloping community
(F.E. Clements)
Mutualistic associations
1) Obligate (need partner)
2) Facultative (can have but don't need)

ex: lichens
Commensal associations
one benefits, other neutral

ex: endophytes (protect toxins which keep plant from being eaten)
Parasitic associations
benefits one, hurts other

ex: athletes foot
Pathogenic
Benefits one, kills other

Ex: ergot & "dancing mania"
5 characteristics of a fungus
1)heterotrophic
2)several different cell types
(both diploid and haploid)
3)dikaryon (may have 2 coexisting haploid nucleus)
4)cell walls-chitin
5)undergo nuclear mitosis
Protist paraphyletic group
commmon ancestors but not all descendants
4 major groups of plants
1)non-vascular plants (liverworts, mosses)
2)seedless vascular plants (ferns, horsetails)
3)gymnosperms (conifers)
4)angiosperm(flowering plants)
4 adaptations ofplants to terrestrial environment
1)waxy cuticle
2)stomata-respiration
3)leaves
4)structural support-cellulose
diplontic
humans (only diploid part is shown)
haplodiplonic
both haploid and diploid are multicellular
sporophyte
diploid form of plant
gamatetophyte
haploid form of plant
sporangia
diploid structure of sporophyte where meiosis takes place
spore mother cells
cell in sporangia that goes through meiosis
spores
haploid
4 characteristics of non-vascular plants
1)no vascular tissue
2)need water for reproduction
3)sporophyte is attatchedto the gametophyte
4)homosporous
3 non-vascular plant phyla
1)bryophyta
2)hepaticophyita
3)anthocerophyta
4 characteristics of seedless vascular plants
1)vascular tissue
2)true stomata
3)need water for reproduction
4)homosporous
What makes up plant vascular tissue?
phloem (carries sugars) and xylem (carries water)
2 seedless vascular phyla
1)lycophyta
2)pterophyta
2 characteristics of gymnosperms
1) cone bearing
2) "naked" seeds
4 gymnosperm phyla
1)coniferophyta
2)cycadophyta
3)ginkophyta
4)gnetophyta
4 characteristics of angiosperms
1)ovules enclosed in ovary
2)fruit develops from the ovary
3)flowers that attract pollinators
4)double fertilization
Angiosperm phyla and 2 classes
anthophyta
1)monocots
2)dicots
monocot
one cotyledon, parallel veins, flower parts in 3's
dicots
two cotyledon, branching veings, flower parts in 4's & 5's
anther
produces pollen
ovule
makes egg
stigma
where pollen lands
carpel
all female parts
pollen grains
1n but 2 nuclei
endosperm
stuff feeds on inside seed (3n)
5 characteristics of animals
1)heterotrophs
2)multicellular
3)move from place to place
4)diverse in form andhabitat
5)sexual reproduction
6 animal phyla
1)Porifera
2)Cnidaria
3)Platyhelminthes
4)Annelida
5)Mollusca
6)Nematoda
5 Characteristics of Porifera
1)belong to "parazoa'
2)cell specialization
3)no true tissues
4)skeleton of spongin & spicules
5)intercellular digestion
osculum
where water comes out in porifera
pores
water comes in
5 Characeristics of Cnidarians
1)Eumetazoa & belong to "radiata"
2)Carnivorous
3)Internal, extracellular digestion (stomach)
4)stinging cells
5)two types
2 types of cnidarians
polyp and medusa
What are cnidarian stinging cells called?
cnidocytes
3 Characteristics of platyhelminthes
1)Bilateral symmetry
2)no body cavity
3)many parasitic
6 Characteristics of nematoda
1)unsegmented
2)covered by thick, flexible cuticle
3)lengthwise muscles ONLY
4)pharynx
5)anus
6)interal body cavity (psuedocoel)
pseudocoel
internal body cavity (serves as hydrostatic skeleton)
coelem
mollusk body cavity
Characteristics of Mollusca
1)body cavity called coelem
2)radula for feeding
3)organ systems in muscular foot
4)shell secreted by the mantle