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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A group of individuals of the same species occupying a specific area
Zero population growth
Arithmetic growth
inccrease in numbers by addition of a set number at a given time
Exponential Growth
the larger the population the greater teh expansion in population size
-the number that will exist depends on the number that does exist .. leads to J-shaped growth
Density (number in a given habitat) dependent factors that can limit growth
-Food supply
Density independent factors
Carrying capacity
maximum population density of given species that a defined geographical area can sustain over time
We have "logistic growth" which is..
slow start, then exponential growth
-levels off when carrying capacity is reached
-can change with a change in resource availability
R and K strategies
"opportunities vs. equilbrial"
-refers to reproductive strategy
-refers also to whether a population is limited by:
Reproductivve rate ("R")
Carrying capacity ("K")
K strategists -Large animals
late reproductive age:long gestation
-few offspring, but large so cared for a long time
-high ability to compete
Survivorship curve
age specific survival
Type I
high survivorship until late in life
-typical of large animals
Type II
constant drop off
-constant death at all ages
Type III
death rate highest
-typical of high repoductive rate things; insects, fish..
Keystone species
a species whose absence would bring about a significant change in the community
Potential Niche
what would exist in absence of competition
Intraspecific competition
individuals of same species (very intense)
Interspecific competition
between populations of different species
Distribution of species
Tropical rain forest has 6% of lane; and 66% of species.
the diversity of living things
Species diversity
the diversity in a given area
Geographic diversity
diversity/ distribution in a given area
Genetic distribution
distribution of alleles
one organism feeding on a second organism, predator/prey
Evolutionary "arms race"
species try to out-smart eachother.. camouflage, mimicry
Batesian mimicry
one species evolves to resemble another that has protective traits
Mullerian mimicry
several species that have protection against predators come to look like eachother
one organism lives on or in a "host" using its tissues for nutrients
interaction that is beneficial to both
micro-viruses bacteria protists
macro-flatworms, roundworms, insects
one benefits , other unaffected
symbiosis where a symbiotic organism lives inside of its partner; eukaryotic organelles
Ecological Succession
sequential development of a community, starting with a pioneering species and ending with a species that remains in equilibrium. One type of growth succeeds another.
Primary succession
begins with a "pioneering species" on a barren habitat (lichens, mosses)
Secondary succesion
starts in a disturbed are (fire, farmed fields)
-area then moves towards recovery
-moves towrd climax
climax community
a stable community that devvelops at the end of a successionary sequence
Natural worlds non-living components
a self-sustaining community of organism and the physical environment with which they interact. includes biotic (living) and abiotic (non living) factors
First law of thermodynamics
energy not created or destroyed; is transformed
Second law of thermodynamics
all transfomations result in lost heat
-energy goes from more ordered to less ordered
Sum total of all the placs in which organisms live
A large region of land (a large ecosystem) dominated by a large vegetational formation (climax vegetation) whose boundaries are determined by climate
Climate affects
-type of primary producers
-subsequent distribution of entire ecosystem
Factors that effect climate
-tilt of the earth
-circulation cells
-warm air rises at equator, spreads north and south
-ocean currents
-rain shadow
Major biome; Tropical rainforest
occurs between 0-20 degrees
-does not grow back when cleared for agriculture
-40 yrs ago rainforest was 2x size of europe.. nonw 1/2 gone 86 acres lost every minute.
-by 2035 most will be gone
Grassland and Savannna
between rainforest and desert
-more rain than desert, not enough for forest 30- 40 latitude
30ish latitude and polar regions
-determined by percipitaion no temp
-low humidity;hot days;cold nights
Taiga or Northern Coniferous forest
-dominted by gymnosperms
-shot seasons; cool summers;cold winters
"tree-less plain"
-1/4 of eaths surface
-little precipitation, but:
-permafrost (no drainage)
-low evaporation
partially enclosed coastal region where seawater mixes with nutrient-rich freshwater
-constant turnover of nutrients
Millennium ecosystem assesment
report assembled by 1300 scientists from 95 countries
millenium conclusion
"ability of ecosystem to sustain future generations cn no longer take for granted"
is O3- filters out UV radiation
-layer occurs in stratosphere
Ozone depletion
discoverd in 1985 (although predicted in 1974)
-cause by CFCs, chain reaction; one chhlorine destroys 10,000 ozones
Loss of biodiversity is caused by
1-habitat destruction, environmental toxins
2-Introduced species
What does biospher do?
-filters water0
-fertile soil
-seed dispersal
-nutrient cycling
-protection from erosion
-protectoin from UV
=$33 trillion
is the only way to add new information to a genome
The "bottleneck effect" is an example of
genetic drift
our species (homo sapiens) arose how many years ago?
what organisms can photosynthesize?
green plants
protistan phytoplankton
Gene Flow
physical movement of genes or alleles from one population to another
-helps keep separate populations genetically similar.
Genetic Drift
random change in allele frequencies in a population, brought about by chance alone
physical (visible) characteristics (domninant allele)
-genetic make up
A ____ consists of a biological_____, or all biotic factors, along with the non living or ______.
ecosystem, community, abiotic
Why is it more accurate to define the biosphere as the global ecosystem rather than the global community?
Because the biosphere contains both biotic and abiotic factors.
____ energy is such an important abiotic factor because ______ provides most of the organic fuel and building material for the organisms of most ecosystems
Solar, photosynthesis
What is acclimation?
A gradual, reversible in anatomy or physiology in response to an environmental change.
Contrast ecological time with evolutionary time.
Ecological time- present interactions between organisms and their environment
Evolutionary-term consequences of those interactions in the adaptaions that evolve via natural selection.
What is the relationship between a population and a species.
A population is a localized subset of a species
What is the approximate size of earths human population?
6 bill
What causes a populations growth to level off if its behavior approximates the logistic model?
The population size reaches the environments carrying capacity
How do the terms opportunistic and equilibrial contrast the key charcteristics of these life history strategies?
opportunistic- large number of offspring very rapidly when the evironment arrords a temporary opportunity for exponential growth (small animals )
Equilibrial- population size taht fluctuates only slightly from carrying capacity (larger animals, take care of young)
A communitys feeding relationships of producers and consumers is referred to as the communitys _____ structure
what is the main abiotic factor that distinguises primary from seconday succesion?
Absence of soil (primary succesion) versus presence of sol (secondary succesion)
Why is the transfer of energy in an ecosystem referred to as energy flow not enegy cycling?
because energy passes through an ecosystem entering as sunligh and leaving as heat. It is not recycled within the ecosystem/
Whay is the main abiotic reservoir for carbon
the atmospheric stock of CO2
The ____, small photosynthetic organisms inhabiting the _____ zone of the pelagic zone , provides most of the food for oceanic life.
photoplankton, photic
What are three main levels of biodiversity
Ecosystem diversityh
species diversity
the gentic diversity of populations
What are the three main causes of the biodiversity crisis?
Habitat destruction
introduced species
What is a biodiversity hot spot?
A relatively small area with a disproportionate number of species
What is a Biome?
A large region of lane (ecosystem) dominated by a large vegetational formation ( climax vegetation) whose boundaries are determined by climate.
What factors effect climate
tilt of earth
circulation cells
ocean currents
rain shadow
What does climate affect
type of primary producers
subsequent distribution of entire ecosystem
If an organism is described to you as being single celled and embryotic, which kingdom does it most likely belong to?
Agiosperms lack
HOw does nnitrogen get from the atmosphere into the biosphere(living world)
it is converted to a usable form by nitrogen-fixing bacteria
What is the benefit to each partner in a mcorrhizal relationship?
the plant gets soil nutrients; the fungus gets food
Most forms of life on earth are..
What protiss are multicellular?
re and brown algae
What organism is responsible for first producing the oxygen in Earths atmosphere?
what is the mian what that cells adapt to extremes of temperature
components of the cell membrane can become more fluid ( in cold) or less fluid (in warm)
what type of tissue moves sugars arounda plant?
what is the linig between photosynthesis and climate change (global warming)?
photosynthesis remove CO2 from the atmosphere while combustion of fossilized plants and other organic material reutrns CO2 to the atmosphere after long term storage.