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46 Cards in this Set

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The Reproduction of a cell
Cell division
A threadlike, gene carrying structure found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell and most visible during mitosis and meiosis
The main gene-carrying structure of a prokaryotic cell.
The creation of offspring by a single parent, without the participation of sperm and egg
Asexual Reproduction
Does not involve fertilizaton
The combination of DNA and protiens that constitute chromosomes; often used to refer to the diffuse, very extended form taken by the chromosomes when a eukaryotic cell is not dividing
The creation of offspring by the fusion of two haploid sex cells(gametes), forming a diploid zygote.
Sexual Reproduction
Requries egg and sperm
Containing a single set of chromosomes; referring to an n cell.
A sex cell; a haploid egg or sperm. The union of two gametes of opposite sex (fertilization) produces a zygone.
The fertilized egg, which is diploid, that results from the union of a sperm cell nucleus and an egg cell nucleus.
One of the two identical parts of a duplicated chromosome in a eukarytotic cell.
Sister Chromatids
The region of a chromosome where two sister chromatids are joined and where spindle microtubules attach during mitosis and meiosis.
The centromere divides at the onset of anaphase during mitosis and anaphase II of meiosis.
An orderly sequence of events(including interphase and the mitotic phase) that extends from the time a eukaryotic cell divides to form two daughter cells to the time those daughter cells divide again.
Cell Cycle
The period in the eukaryotic cell cycle when the cell is not actually dividing.
The part of the cell cycle when mitosis divides the nucleus and distributes its chromosomes to the daughter nuclei and cytokinesis divides the cytoplasm, producing two daughter cells.
Mitotic Phase
The division of a single nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. Mitosis and cytokinesis make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle.
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells. Cytokinesis usally occurs during telophase of mitosis, and the two processes make up the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle.
A type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane enclosed organelles.
Eukaryotic cell cycle
All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells.
The first stage of mitosis, during which duplicated chromosomes condense to form structures visible with a light microscope and the mitotic spindle forms and begins moving the chromosomes toward the center.
The second stage of mitosis. During metaphase, all the cell's duplicated chromosomes are lined up at an imaginary plane equidstant between the poles of the mitotic spindle.
The third stage of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes has arrived at each of the two poles of the cell.
The fourth and final stage of mitosis, during which daughter nuclei form at the two poles of a cell.
Telophase usually occurs together with cytokinesis.
A spindle-shape structure formed of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis.
Mitotic Spindle
A spindle is shaped roughly like a football.
Material in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell tat gives rise to microtules; microtubule-organizing center.
The first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell
Cleavage furrow
A shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
Cell Plate
An abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body.
Benign Tumor
A cell that is not subject to normal cell cycle control mechanisms and that will therefore divide continuously.
Cancer Cell
An abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body
Malignant Tumor
Cancerous Tumor
The spread of cancer cells beyond their original site.
Cancer that originates in the covering of the body, such as the skin or the lining of the intestinal tract.
Cancer of the supportive tissues, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle.
A type of cancer of the blood forming tissue, characterized by an excessive production of white cells and an abnormally high number of them in the blood.
Cancer of the bone marrow cells that produce leukocytes.
Cancer of the tissue that form white blood cells.
Treatment for cancer in which parts of the body that have cancerous tumors are exposed to high-energy radiation to disrupt cell division of the cancer cell.
Radiation Therapy
Treatment for cancer in which drugs are administered to dirupt cell division of the cancer cell.
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell or a cell that develops into a sperm or egg.
Somatic Cell
A display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size and centromere position
The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell. Homologous chromosomes are of the same length, centromere position, and sraining pattern and possess genes for the same characteristice at corresponding loci.
Homologous Chromosomes
A chromosomes that determines whether an individual is male or female
Sex Chromosomes
Containtin two homologous sets of chromosomes in each cell, one set inherited from each parent; reffering to a 2n cell.
A sex cell; haploid egg or sperm.
The union of two gametes of opposite sex produces a zygote.
Containg a single set of chromosomes; reffering to a n cell.
The union of the nucleus of a sperm cell with the nucleus of an egg cell, producing a zygote.
In a sexually reproducing organisim, the division of a single diploid nucleus into four haploid daughters nuclei. Meiosis and cytokinesis produced haploin gametes from diploid cells in the reproductive organs of the parents.
The exchange of segments between chrommatids of homologaous chromosomes during synapsis in prophase I of meiosis; also, the exchange of segments between DNA molecules in prokaryotes.
Crossing over
The microscopically visible site where crossing over has occurred between chromatids of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
The production, by crossing over and/or indendent assortment of chromosomes
Genetic recombination