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77 Cards in this Set

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Noncellular infectious particle which consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat.
What are microscopic prokaryotic cells that generally have one circular chromosome and often have extra DNA in the form of plasmids?
What are eukaryotic infectious agents?
Fungi and Protozoa
What are the characteristics of bacteria?
1. All bacteria are prokaryotes; they don't have a membranebound nucleus.
2. Single chromosome
3. Cell wall of peptidoglycan
4. Reproduce by prokaryotic fission
Virus that has RNA as its genetic material. Incubation? 1st symtoms? Tranmission? Vaccine?
Hepatitis A virus
-Incubation: 15-45 days
-1st symptoms: Tired, loss of appetite, jaundice a week later
-No chronic infection
-Transmission: Fecal-oral route (contaminated food)
-Vaccine- Giving part of the organism/alerting your immune system
Virus that has DNA as its genetic material. Easier to catch this than HIV. Incubation? Symptoms? Transmission?
Hepatitus B virus
-Incubation: 6 weeks- 6 months
-25-30% asymptomatic (if you do have symptoms, last 3-4 months)
-5-10% chronic infection, which may lead to liver damage, cirrhosis, cancer
-Transmission: sexual, blood
Virus that has RNA as its genetic material. Incubation? Symptoms? Transmission?
Hepatitis C virus
-Incubation: very very long (20-30 years)
-75-85% asymptomatic
-80% chronic "silent killer"
-Transmission: mainly by blood, sexual
-No vaccine
A few rare, fetal degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are linked to small infectious proteins called ______.
What are the nonspecific defenses against pathogens?
1. Barriers like skin
2. Stomach acid; inside of stomach similar to battery acid
3. Tears/saliva
4. Cililated mucous membrane; lining of the resporatory tract
5. Phagocytosis; process where only phagocytic cells or "scavengers" can do this
6. Fever; caused by your phagocyotic cells
Nonspecific defenses include white blood cells, which include what five things?
1. Neutrophil
2. Eosinophil
3. Basophil
4. Monocytes
5. Lymphocyles
What are the 3 properties of specific defenses or your immune system?
1. Specific
2. Has memory
3. Distinguishes self from non-self
A protein that the cells are making. Any of a variety of Y-shaped receptor molecules with binding sites for specific antigens. Only B cells produce antibodies, then position them at their surface or secrete them.
There are _____ classes of antibodies, whic the B cells produce.
____ is the first antibody secreted during immune responses and the first one produced by newborns. The molecules cluster into a structure iwth ten antigen binding sites, which makes it more efficient at binding clumped targets. They are short-lived and can be receptors on B cells.
Most common antibody. Most efficient one at turning on complement proteins, and it neutralizes many toxins. It easily crosses the placenta and protects the developing fetus with the mother's acquired immunities. Fairly long-lived.
In ______ ______, you see the antigen, you make an immune response, and you'll be doing all the work.
Active immunity
In ______ _______, someone else has the immune response and you get the benefits temporarily. E.g. mother with memory cells of chicken pox protects the fetus.
Passive immunity
Which of the following could be called "pathogens"?
a. Viruses only, because they are nonliving
b. Bacteria only, because they are prokaryotes
c. protozoans, because they are eukaryotes
d. bacteria and protozoans only, because they are alive
e. viruses, bacteria, and protozoans
e. viruses, bacteria, and protozoans
Diseases occurring more or less continuously, but in rather localized populations, are:
a. sporadic
b. endemic
c. pandemic
d. epidemic
e. virulent
b. endemic
Most scientists do not consider viruses to be "alive" because:
a. they have no genes
b. their metabolic machinery is borrowed from the host cell
c. they are unable to reproduce
d. no definite structural features are seen under the microscope
e. they have no proteins
b. their metabolic machinery is borrowed from the host cell
Antibiotic drugs are most effective against:
a. bacteria primarily
b. viruses primarily
c. bacteria primarily, and some viruses
d. bacteria and viruses equally
e. all pathogens
a. bacteria primarily
In bacteria, DNA is:
a. in the nucleus
b. in the organelles
c. in both the nucleus and organelles
d. in a single circular thread
e. as particles scattered throughout the entire bacteria cell
d. in a single circular
Infective proteins are known as:
a. retroviruses
b. prions
c. viruses
d. fungi
e. none of these, because nucleic acids are needed for infections
b. prions
When a virus takes over the machinery of a cell, it forces the cell to manufacture:
a. more mitochondria to produce energy for the virus
b. more lysosomes for digestion
c. more food particles
d. more viral particles
e. more Golgi bodies so that the cell will secrete excess viruses
d. more viral particles
Four of the five answers listed below are bacterial structures. Select the exception.
a. cell wall
b. mitochondria
c. DNA
d. ribosomes
e. cell membrane
b. mitochondria
Vaccination is available against:
a. herpes simplex viruses
b. hepatitis B
c. malaria
d. West Nile virus
e. hepatitis C
b. hepatitis B
Whic of the following is a reemerging disease?
a. TB
c. West Nile
d. malaria
e. sickle cell anemia
a. TB
General name for viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and parasitic worms that cause diseases.
The most abundant kind of white blood cell. Ingests and kills bacteria, then digest the dead cells.
Secrete substances (such as histamine) that may help keep inflamination going after it starts.
What are the 6 examples of non-specific defense mechanisms?
1. Barriers like skin
2. Stomach acid (inside of stomach similar to battery acid; level of protection against organism)
3. Tears/Saliva
4. Cilated Mucous Membrane (e.g. lining of the resporatory tract)
5. Phagocytosis (process where only phagocytotic cells or "scavengers" can do this"
6. Fever
3 Cells that are phagocytic ("scavenger" cells).
1. Neutrophil
2. Monocyte
3. Macrophage
One of the phagocytic white blood cells. It engulfs anything detected as foreign, Some also become antigen-presenting cells that serve as the trigger for immune responses by T and B lymphocytes. Compare antigen-presenting cell.
Any marker that triggers the formation of lymphocyte armies and is their target is an _______. The most important ____ are proteins at the surfaces of pathogens and tumor cells. It is a chemical (usually a foreign protein) that triggers an immune response to itself.
The immune system has four key features, which are what?
1. It recognizeds self versus nonself
2. It has specificity, because it is directed against one particular antigen.
C. It has diversity, because the B and T cells can respond to at least a billion different threats.
D. Each response shows memory. A subsequent encounter with the same antigen triggers a more rapid, stronger secondary response.
An _____ is an immune response to a generally harmless substance.
Fever is caused by your ___________ ____.
phagocyotic cells
What are the 5 classes of antibodies?
IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, IgE
Antibody that is an immunoglobulin. 1st antibody made in a primary immune response. Short-lived. Receptors on B cells.
Most common antibody. Fairly long-lived. Can cross the placenta to the fetus.
"In External secretation." Mucus, saliva, tears, colostrum, breast milk.
Receptors on B cells. Don't know what they do.
Antibodies that are allergies. Abnormal hyperactive reaction. Evolved to fight parasitic infections.
Purposely being exposed to antigens, which will stimulate your immune cells and you'll make memory cells.
Living but not pathogenetic (won't give you a disease)
Attenuated infectious agents
Transplantation of organs from one species of animal to another.
Active immunity?
You see the antigen.
You make an immune response.
You're doing all the work.
Passive immunity?
Someone else has the immune response. You get the benefits (temporily). E.g. mother with memory cells of chicken pox protects the fetus.
Gamma-globulin shots do what?
Injection of antibodies e.g. HEPA for treatment of Hepatitis A.
Body wide, systemic allergic reaction. Can kill you. Not enough blood press or a drop could cause shock.
A basophil-like cell that releases histamine during tissue inflammation.
Mast cell
Local signaling molecule that fans inflammation; makes arterioles dilate and capillaries more permeable (leaky).
How does antigen get onto your cell?
1. Virally-infected cell
2. It's a cancer cell.
3. Most Common- Phagocytic cells present the antigen. Non-specific defenders takes antigen from bacteria and places it in cell membrane.
"Recognition proteins." Label your cells as belonging to you.
MHC. Major Histocompatibility Complex proteins.
1st T cell responds to antigen. Then releases a chemical called ________.
Cytokines does what three things?
1. Stimulate phagocytosis
2. Stimulate b-calls or humoral immunal response
3. Stimulate T cytotoxi cells or cell-to-cell combat.
__________ mount a chemical counterattack, in the form of antibodies. Accordingly, their responses are said to be antibody-mediated.
B Cells
An RNA virus that infects animal cells. They establish yet another relationship with the host cell. This is what happens when a person becomes infected with HIV.
Six step cycle of the virus?
1. Attachment to the host cell
2. Entry of the virus or its genetic material into the cell's cytoplasm.
3. Replication of the viral DNA or RNA
4. Synthesis of enzymes and other proteins, using the host cell's metabolic machinery
5. Assembly of the viral nucleic acids and viral proteins into new virus particles
6. Release of the new virus particles from the cell
Direct cause of ______ is a protozoan called Plasmodium. Shaking, chill, a high fever, and drenching sweats classic symptoms.
Caused by a highly contagious microbe of the coronavirus family. First transmitted to humans from civet, a Chinese food delicacy.
Spread by mosquitoes that have fed on infected birds. Little in the way of effective treatment. Common symptoms are fever and GI tract discomfort.
West Nile Virus
Reemerging disease. Trasmitted in airborne droplets produced by coughing or sneezing. Crowded, unsanitary condition, HIV, and intravenous drug abusers are more likely to get it.
HIV can only infect cells that have a surface receptor called _______.
_____ and ________ __ _____ are known as CD4 lymphocytes because they have this receptor.
Macrophages and helper T cells
During some phases of HIV infection, the virus infects an estimated 2 billion _____ ___ _____ and produces 100 million to 1 billion new HIV particles each day. They bud from the plasma membrane of the ______ ___ _____ or are released when the membrane ruptures.
Helper T cells
What is the process of HIV?
1. Viral RNA enters a CD4 lymphocyte.
2. Viral RNA forms by reverse transcription of viral RNA.
3. The viral DNA becomes integrated into host cell's DNA.
4. DNA, including the viral genes, is transcribed.
5. Some transcripts are new viral RNA, others are translated into proteins. Both self-assemble into new virus particles.
6. Virus particles that bud from the infected cell may attack a new one.
The preferred treatment of HIV?
A drug "cocktail" that often consists of a protease inhibitor and two anti-HIV drugs
The specific kind of defense ica called an _____ _____, and it occurs when lymphocytes recognize an invading pathogen.
immune response
____ __ _____ that bind to antigen MHC complexes secrete chemical signals. The signals call for the repeated round of division that form armies of sensitized B and T cells. They also prompt the specialization of the B and T cells into effector and memory cells.
Helper T cells
_____ ___ ___ and natural killer cells attack infected body cells, tumor cells, and cells of organ transplants. They release chemical weapons that form lethal pore in a target's plasma membrane. Because cells mount this immune response, counterattacks by theses cells are called what?
Cytotoxic T cells; cell-mediated responses
__ _____ mount a chemical counterattack, in the form of antibodies.
B cells.
An _____ is a protein that can bind to an antigen.
Different flu strains have different unique surface antigens.
In an _______ _____, the immune system's powerful weapons are unleashed against normal body cells or proteins.
autoimmune response
What are 3 examples of the autoimmune response?
1. Rheumatoid arthritis
2. Type 1 diabetes
3. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
Where are the MHC found?
They are some of the proteins that stick out above the plasma membrane of body cells.