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90 Cards in this Set

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bond which links an already covalently bonded hydrogen atom with an electronegative atom
hydrogen bond
atoms or molecules that have been set loose that can cause damage to the bodie that can range from cancer to heart problems
free radicals
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree celsius
specific heat
compunds that will interact with water
hydrophilic
molecules that dont interact with water
hydrophobic
any substance that yields hydrogen ions when put in aqueous solution
acid
any substance that accepts hydrogen ions
base
physiological systems that function to keep ph within normal limits
buffering system
a branch of chemistry devoted to the study of compounds that have carbon as their central element
organic chemistry
molecules that are the same in their chemical formulas, but differ in the spatial arrangment of their elements
isomers
a group of atoms that confers a special property on a carbon based molecule
functional group
a large molecule made of many similar or identical subunits.
polymer
a small molecule that can be combined with other similar or identical molecules to make polymers
monomer
organic molecules that always contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
carbohydrates
building blocks for the carbohydrates
monosaccharides\simple sugars
a complex carbohydrate found in plants that exists in the form of such foods like potatoes, rice carrots and corn
starch
serves as the primary form of carbohydrates storage in animals
glycogen
a rigid complex carbohydrate contained in the cell wall of many organisms. makes up the natural world
cellulose
a complex carbohydrate that forms the external skeleton of the arthopods
chitin
a class of biological molecules whose defining characteristic is their relative insolubility in water
lipids
a lipid molecule formed from three fatty acids bonded to glycerol
triglyceride
a molecule found in many lipids that is composed of a hydrocarbon cahin bonded to a carboxyl group
fatty acids
a fatty acid with no double bond between the carbon atoms of its hydrocarbon chain
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid with two or more bonds between carbon atoms
polyunsaturated fatty acid
liquid form of fatty acids
oil
a steroid molecules that forms part of the outer membrane of all animal cells, and that acts as a precursor for many other steroids
cholesterol
a phosphorus atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms
phosphate group
a charged lipid molecule composed of two fatty acids, glycerol, and a phophate group
phospholipids
a series of amino acids linked in linear fashion.
polypeptide
when a polypeptide cahin folds up in a specific three dimensional manner
protein
a common secondary structure of proteins, has a shape much like a corkscrew
alpha helix
a molecule that is a combination of lipids and proteins
lipoprotein
combinations of proteins and carbohydrates
glycoproteins
the primary information bearing molecule of life, composed of two linked chains of nucleotides
DNA/ deoxyribonucleic
a molecule composed of nucleotides that is active in the synthesis of proteins.
RNA/ribonucleic acid
cells who primary complement of DNA is enclosed within a nucleus
eukaryotic cells
cells whose DNA is not enclosed with a nucleus
prokaryotic cells
a highly organized structure, internal to a cell that serves some specialized function
organelle
a protein rich, jelly like fluid in which the cells organelles are immersed
cytosol
the outer lining of the cell
plasma membrane
the region of the cell inside the plasma membarne but outside the nucleus
cytoplasm
the double membrane that lines the nucleus in eukaryotic cells
nuclear envelope
an organelle that serves as the site of protein synthesis in the cell
ribosomes
a network of membranes that aids in processing of proteins in eukaryotic cells.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
the area within the nucleus of a cell devoted to the production of ribosomal RNA
nucleus
the membrane lined spheres that move within this network and other molecules
transport vesicles
an interactive group of membrane lined organelles and transport vesicles within eukaryotic cells
endomembrane system
a network of membranes that processes and distributes proteins that come to it from the rough endoplasmic reticulum
the golgi complex
a network of membranes that is the site of the synthesis of various lipids, and a site at which potentially harmful substances are detoxified within the cell
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
a organelle found in animal cells that digest wornout cellular materials and foreign materials that enter the cell
lysosomes
organelles that are the primary sites of energy conversion in eukaryotic cells
mitochondria
a network of filaments that fuctions in cell structure, cell movement and the transport of materials within the cell
cytoskeleton
the most slinder of the cytoskeleton fibers, which are made of the protein actin and serves as a support filament in almost all eukaryotic cells
microfilaments
filaments of the cytoskeleton intermediate in diameter between microfilaments and microtubules
intermediate filaments
the largest of the cytoskeleton filaments taking the form of tubes composed of the protein tubulin
microtubules
plants have an outer protective lining that makes their plasma membrane just inside it, look rather thin and frail by comparison
cell wall
a large watery plant organelle that has many functions, among them the storage of nutrients and the retention and degradation of waste products
central vacuole
the organelle that is the site of photosynthesis in plant andalgae cells
chloroplast
communication between plnat cells takes place quite readily however through a series of tiny channels in the plant cell wall
plasmodesmata
protein assemblage that forms a communication channel between adjacent animal cells
gap junction
a cheif component of the plasma membrane composed of two layers of phospholipids arranges with their fatty acid chains pointing toward each other
phospholipid bilayer
that are bound to the membranes hydrophobic interior
integral proteins
plasma membrane proteins that lie on either side of the membrane but that are not bound to its hydrophobic interior
peripheral
a plasma membrane protein that binds with a signaling molecule
receptor protein
proteins that facilitate the movement of molecles or ions from one side of the plasma membrane to the other
transport proteins
an outer layer of the plasma membrane composed of short carbohydrate chains that attach to membrane proteins and phospholipid molecules
glyocalyx
a membrane forming the outer boundary of many cells,composed of a phospholipid bilayer that is interspersed with proteins and cholesterol and coated on its exterior face with carbohydrates
plasma membrane
the movement of molecules or ions from a region of their higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
diffusion
the net movement of water across a smipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher concentration
osmosis
a fluid that has a higher concentration of solutes than another
hypertonic soution
the difference between the highest and lowest concentration of a solute within a given medium
concentration gradient
two solutions that have equal concentrations of solutes
isotonic
a fluid that has a lower concentration than another
hypotonic
any movement of of molecules or ions across a cell membrane that requires expenditure of energy
active transport
diffusion through a cell membrane that does not require a special protein channel
simple diffusion
passage of materials through the plasma membrane that is aided by a concentration gradient and a transport protein
facilitated diffusion
the movement of materials out of the cell through a fusion of a vesicle with the plasma membrane
exocytosis
the movement of relatively large materials into the cell by infolding of the plasma membrane.
endocytosis
a form of endoctosis that brings into the cell a small volume of extracellular fluid and the materials suspended in it
pinocytosis
depends on receptors whose role is to bind to specific molecules and then hold onto them
receptor mediated endocytosis
bringing relatively large materials into a cell by means of wrapping extensions of the plasma membrane around the materials and fusing the extensions together
phagocytosis
energy in motion as with the rock tumbling down a hill
kinetic energy
reactions in which the starting set of molecules contains more energy than the final set of molecules
exergonic reaction
reactions in which the prodcts contain more energy than the reactants
endergonic
a chemical reaction in which an exergoinic reaction powers an endergonic reaction
coupled reaction
a type of protein that accelerates a chemical reaction
enzyme
a set of enzymatically controlled steps that results in the completion of a product or process in an organism
metabolic pathway
the sum of all the chemical reactions that a cell or larger organism carries out
metabolism
substances that retain their original chemical composition while bringing about a change in a substrate
catalyst
the prtion of an enzyme that binds with and transforms a substrate
active site