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35 Cards in this Set

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Domain Eukarya
multicellular eukaryotic organisms; Kingdoms: Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, (Protists)
Domain Archaea
prokaryotic organisms that live in extreme environments; no cell walls; ex: thermophiles, methanogens
Domain Bacteria
unicellular prokaryotes
negative feedback
accumulation of an end product slows the process; ex: an excess of ATP inhibits enzymes at the beginning of the pathway
positive feedback
accumulation of an end product speeds up the process; ex: blood clot in response to an injury--the chemicals released by platelets attract more platelets
covalent bond
sharing valence electrons
nonpolar covalent bond
bond in which electrons are shared equally; ex: H2 or O2
polar covalent bond
bon in which electrons are not shared equally; ex: CH4 or H2O
ionic bond
attraction between cations & anions
cation
positively charged ion; more protons than electrons
anion
negatively charged ion; more electrons than protons
properties of water
cohesion, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, versatility as a solvent
cohesion
bonding together of like molecules (often by H+ bonds); contributes to transport of water & dissolved nutrients against gravity in plants
acid
substance that increases H+ concentration of a solution; H+ donor

PH < 7
base
substance that reduces H+ concentration of a solution; H+ acceptor

PH > 7
allele
alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects
codominance
phenotypes of both alleles exhibited in the heterozygote
complete dominance
phenotypes of heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable
epistasis
gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited
incomplete dominance
phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between phenotypes of individuals homozygous for either allele
law of independent assortment
Mendel's 2nd law; each pair of alleles segregates independently during gamete formation
law of segregation
Mendel's 1st law; each allele in a pair separates into a different gamete during gamete formation
multiple alleles
more than 2 alleles/versions of a gene (ex: blood type)
multifactorial
refers to a phenotypic character that is influenced by multiple genes & environmental factors
pleiotropy
ability of a single gene to have multiple effects
Sickle Cell Disease
genetic disease caused by recessive allele resulting in substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; characterized by deformed red blood cells
Tay Sachs Disease
genetic disease caused by a recessive allele for a dysfunctional enzyme leading to an accumulation of certain lipids in the brain
entropy
measure of disorder; every transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe
endergonic reaction
a non-spontaneous chemical reaction, in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
exergonic reaction
a spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy
catabolic
a metabolic pathway that breaks down complex molecules into simpler compounds
anabolic
a metabolic pathway that synthesizes (builds) a complex molecule from simpler compounds
allosteric regulation
the binding of a molecule to a protein that affects the function of the protein at a different site
noncompetitive inhibitor
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate
competitive inhibitor
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics