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11 Cards in this Set

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What does cell-cell interactions provide for multicellular organisms?
structure, coordinate function, and developmental growth
What are some types of chemical signals?
1. gases - NO nitric oxide that aids in blood dialation

2.lipophilic molecules such as steriods

3. hydrophilic molecules such as proteins and peptides with insulin and growth hormones

4. amines derived from single amino acids such as glycine and thyroid hormone

5. carbohyrdates such as glycoproteins and glycolipids
What are receptors?
specifically shaped protein that fits a specific molecule

when signal and receptor bind a response is produced
What are the general characteristics of a receptor?
1. cell specificity - only cells that fit can respond

2. binding specificity - monogamous binding

3.
What are the types of cell signaling/contact between cells?
1. autocrine signaling in which cell signal themselves by secreting singlas that bind to specific sites on their own plasma membrame

2. direct contact in which cells have the ability to touch each other through gap junctions in between their plasma membrane

3. paracrine signaling between neighboring cells, they are short-lived and only in general releasing vicinity

4. endocrine signaling are long lasting hormones that are released and travel through the blood to the targeted recpetor cells i.e. LH and ovulation

5. synaptic signaling when neurotrasmitters are released by neurons i.e. norepi and heart
Why do cell surface receptors accept hydrophilic signals?
because water-soluble molecule can not readily diffuse through the plasma membrane due to the phospholipid bilayer and the hydrophobic tails
Why do intracellular receptors accept lipophilic signals?
because the lipid soluble molecules are generally small and can easily pass through the phospholipid bilayer without any problems, however once inside the cell it needs to bind to intracellular receptors to get its message to different places with in the cytoplasm/different structures in the cytoplasm

the lipophilic signals allow the receptor proteins to change shape releasing an inhibitor protein and allowing gene transcription to procede
Name the cell surface receptors and their functions?
chemically gated ion channels that open and close when a cell binds to the receptor

enzyme receptors that are activated when signals bind

g protein receptors that activate intermediary proteins and initiate a diffusable signal in the cytoplasm
What are some examples of receptors and their effects?
andorgen receptor is intracellular and aids in the transciption of genes to produce the male phenotype

insulin is an enzyme receptor that aids in the uptake of glucose into cells
What is the expression of cell identity?
cells have marker proteins on the cell surface to identify and "read" them to be of a partyicular type dictating their function
Describe the marker proteins glycolipids and MHC or major histocompatability complex?
glycolipids are tissue specific identity markers which are lipids with carbohydrate heads and are located on the surface of the red blood cells and responsible for A B and O blood types

MHC identify self versus nonself cells and work with the immune system in elimiunating foreign objects