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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three types of neurons and what do they do?
sensory neurons or afferent neurons = carry information from receptors to the CNS

Motor neurons or eferent neurons = carry infromation from the CNS to the effectors

Interneurons = connect neurons for complex interactions
What is the CNS?
the central nervous system or the brain and spinal cord
What is the PNS?
the peripheral nevous system or the afferent and efferent neurons
What are the types of efferent neurons?
somatic neurons or skeltal cells

autonomic neurons or smooth and cardiac muscles or glands

sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
What is the structure of a neuron and their function?
dendrites and cell body receives information and triggers an impuls that is conducted away towards an axon
What are neuroglia?
oligodendrocytes in CNS and schwann cells in PNS that myelinate the axons
What does signaling in the nervous system involve?
1. activation of sensory receptors
2. electrical impulses
3. synaptic signaling through NT
What is RMP?
it is resting membrane potential and all cells have it

it is a difference in charges across a membrane and the inside is usually negatively charged
What is graded potential?
chemical signal or NT opens ion channels

the more NT = more effect it has

negative potential = inhibitory and positive potential is excitatory
What is meant by polarized?
seperation of charges across a membrane
What is depolarize?
moving from the inside of a cell or negative charge to a positive charge outside of the cell
What is hyperpolarize?
moving from inside of cell or negative charge to an even more negative charge
hat are action potentials?
all or none (not graded)
always follow the same pattern
occur in axons
only occurs if threshold is met
and the stiumulus is electrical
How is an action potential generated?
it is stimulated by an electrical charge and include the opening of a voltage-gated ion channel
What are the steps for an action potential?
1resting membrane potential
2voltage gated sodium ion channels open
3lots of sodium enters cell causing + charge or depolarization
4 sodium channels close and potassium channels open
5 potassium leaves cells quickly and repolarization and often hyperpolarization occurs
What is the propogation of action potentials?
What is saltatory conduction in an action potential?
myleinated neurons and AP conduction only occurs at nodes of ranvier as they jump from node to node
What happens when an action potential reaches an axon terminal?
it causes the release of NT at the synaptic cleft or gap
What is the structure of a synapse?
intercellular junctions with axon terminals containing vesicles with loads of NT

AP cause exocytosis of the NT as the NT cross cleft and bind to receptors of postsynaptic neuron

include a narrowing space seperating two cells called the synaptic cleft or gap

presynaptic = cell releasing NT
postsynaptic = cell receiving NT
What is acetylcholine and its function?
its an excitatory postsynaptic potential por EPSP that depolarized cells and brings axons close to AP
What is Glutamate?
neurotransmitter EPSP in the CNS
What are glycine and GABA?
neurotransmitter IPSP that hyperpolarizes cell and makes AP in axons less likely
What is synaptic integration?
What are the differences between the flatworm and vertebrate brains?
flatworm = centralization of neurons with peripheral nerves

vertebrates = hindbrain present in early verts with control over motor activity
What is the basic function of the hindbrain?
What are the basic function of the midbrain?
reflexes involving eyes and ears
What is the basic function of the forebrain?
dominant portion especially in mammals and includes the CEREBRUM!
What is the cerebrum?
a portion of the forebrain

functions as center for correlation, association and learning
What are the four regions of the cerebrum?
basal ganglia, corpus callosum, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex
What do the four regions of the cerebrum control?
Basal ganglia controls motor control and whether you get parkinson's disease

hippocampus controls memory and emotion

cerebral cortex controls higher functions
What does the autonomic nervous system control?
it controls the cardiac, smooth muscle, and glands
What subdivisions are included in the ANS?
parasympathetic or rest and digest
and sympathetic or fight or flight and helps body respond to stress
What does the somatic nervous system control?
it controls skeletal muscle, generates AP in muscles as AP causes muscle contraction